Study – Previous COVID-19 may cut risk of reinfection 84%


People who had COVID-19 had an 84% lower risk of becoming reinfected and a 93% lower risk of symptomatic infection during 7 months of follow-up, according to findings from a large, multicenter study published late last week in The Lancet.

The prospective cohort SARS-CoV-2 Immunity and Reinfection Evaluation (SIREN) study, by Public Health England Colindale researchers, involved 25,661 workers at public hospitals throughout England who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 every 2 to 4 weeks and antibodies at enrollment and every 4 weeks. Volunteers also completed questionnaires on symptoms and exposures every 2 weeks.

Of the 25,661 participants, 32.3% were assigned to the baseline positive (possibly or probably previously infected) group, and 67.7% were assigned to the negative group. Of the 8,278 positive participants, 91.2% had SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at study enrollment, while 7.0% were negative for antibodies but had a previously positive antibody and/or coronavirus test, and 1.8% had tested positive for COVID-19 but didn’t have linked antibody data.

Natural immunity vs vaccine protection

In a commentary in the same journal, Florian Krammer, PhD, of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City, said that although natural infection tends to induce lower and more variable antibody concentrations than COVID-19 vaccines, “the findings of the authors suggest that infection and the development of an antibody response provides protection similar to or even better than currently used SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.

He added, “The SIREN study adds to a growing number of studies, which demonstrate that infection does protect against reinfection, and probably in an antibody-dependent manner.”

Krammer pointed out that the researchers didn’t link quantitative antibody measurements to protection against infection afforded by natural infection versus vaccines, a topic that should be a priority for future studies.

“Establishment of antibody titres as a correlate of protection and defining a protective titre would be extremely important for public health considerations and for patient management,” he wrote. “A correlate of protection and a protective threshold would also allow for the development of additional SARS-CoV-2 vaccines based on small immunogenicity-based phase 3 trials rather than large and costly field efficacy trials, which are becoming exceedingly difficult to perform.”

Survey Underscores Importance of Masks and Testing Along With Vaccines


new study from the University of California, Davis, Genome Center, UC San Francisco and the Chan Zuckerberg Biohub shows no significant difference in viral load between vaccinated and unvaccinated people who tested positive for the delta variant of SARS-CoV-2. It also found no significant difference between infected people with or without symptoms.

The findings underscore the continuing need for masking and regular testing alongside vaccination, especially in areas of high prevalence, the authors wrote. The study is currently available online as a preprint from MedRxiv.

“Our study adds to existing data about levels of virus in vaccine breakthroughs in two settings of high ongoing community prevalence of the delta variant,” said Professor Richard Michelmore, director of the UC Davis Genome Center.

The study was conducted with positive samples from asymptomatic testing at UC Davis for Healthy Yolo Together and at the Unidos en Salud walk-up testing site in the Mission District of San Francisco.

The researchers looked at 869 positive samples, 500 from Healthy Yolo Together and 369 from Unidos en Salud. All the Healthy Yolo Together samples were from people who were asymptomatic at the time of positive test result, and three-quarters were from unvaccinated individuals. The Unidos en Salud samples included both asymptomatic and symptomatic cases. Just over half (198) of the Unidos en Salud samples were unvaccinated.

Study – Anti–SARS-CoV-2 and Autoantibody Profiles in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of 3 Teenaged Patients With COVID-19 and Subacute Neuropsychiatric Symptoms


Findings  In this case series of 3 pediatric patients with subacute neuropsychiatric impairment, 2 had intrathecal anti–SARS-CoV-2 antibodies as well as intrathecal antineural antibodies. Anti–transcription factor 4 (TCF4) autoantibodies in one patient who responded to immunotherapy were validated.

Meaning  A subset of pediatric patients with COVID-19 and subacute neuropsychiatric symptoms have intrathecal antineural autoantibodies, suggesting central nervous system autoimmunity in pediatric patients with COVID-19 and recent neuropsychiatric symptoms.Abstract

Importance  Neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 have been reported in the pediatric population.

Objective  To determine whether anti–SARS-CoV-2 and autoreactive antibodies are present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of pediatric patients with COVID-19 and subacute neuropsychiatric dysfunction.

Design, Setting, and Participants  This case series includes 3 patients with recent SARS-CoV-2 infection as confirmed by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction or IgG serology with recent exposure history who were hospitalized at the University of California, San Francisco Benioff Children’s Hospital and for whom a neurology consultation was requested over a 5-month period in 2020. During this period, 18 total children were hospitalized and tested positive for acute SARS-CoV-2 infection by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction or rapid antigen test.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Detection and characterization of CSF anti–SARS-CoV-2 IgG and antineural antibodies.

Results  Of 3 included teenaged patients, 2 patients had intrathecal anti–SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. CSF IgG from these 2 patients also indicated antineural autoantibodies on anatomic immunostaining. Autoantibodies targeting transcription factor 4 (TCF4) in 1 patient who appeared to have a robust response to immunotherapy were also validated.

Conclusions and Relevance  Pediatric patients with COVID-19 and prominent subacute neuropsychiatric symptoms, ranging from severe anxiety to delusional psychosis, may have anti–SARS-CoV-2 and antineural antibodies in their CSF and may respond to immunotherapy.

Study – A self-assembling nanoparticle: Implications for the development of thermostable vaccine candidates



Effective controls on viral infections rely on the continuous development in vaccine technology. Nanoparticle (NP) antigens are highly immunogenic based on their unique physicochemical properties, making them molecular scaffolds to present soluble vaccine antigens. Here, viral targets (113–354 aas) were genetically fused to N terminal of mi3, a protein that self-assembles into nanoparticles composed of 60 subunits. With transmission electron microscopy, it was confirmed that target-mi3 fusion proteins which have insertions of up to 354 aas in N terminal form intact NPs. Moreover, viral targets are surface-displayed on NPs as indicated in dynamic light scattering. NPs exhibit perfect stability after long-term storage at room temperature. Moreover, SP-E2-mi3 NPs enhance antigen uptake and maturation in dendritic cells (DCs) via up-regulating marker molecules and immunostimulatory cytokines. Importantly, in a mouse model, SP-E2-mi3 nanovaccines against Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) remarkably improved CSFV-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and cellular immunity related cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-4) as compared to monomeric E2. Specially, improved NAb response with more than tenfold increase in NAb titer against both CSFV Shimen and HZ-08 strains indicated better cross-protection against different genotypes. Collectively, this structure-based, self-assembling NP provides an attractive platform to improve the potency of subunit vaccine for emerging pathogens.

Brownstone Institute – 21 Essential Studies that Raise Grave Doubts about COVID-19 Vaccine Mandates



The following research papers and studies raise doubts that Covid vaccine mandates are backed by science and good public-health practice. Anyone seeking to challenge these mandates should consult these carefully. They demonstrate that these mandates provide no overall health benefit to the community and can even be harmful. Instead, the decision to accept the vaccine should be made by individuals according to their own assessment of risks in consultation with informed medical professionals. 

The model of Marek’s disease (‘leaky’ non-sterilizing, non-neutralizing vaccines that reduce symptoms but do not stop infection or transmission) and the concept of the Original antigenic sin (the initial priming of the immune system prejudices the immune response to the pathogen or similar pathogen life-long) may explain what we are potentially facing now with these mass mandates of COVID vaccines (immune escape, increased transmission, faster transmission, and potentially more ‘hotter’ variants).

In addition, such mandates result in the forced separation and segregation of society. They create hazards for people in their professional lives. For example, why would governments impose punitive career altering vaccine mandates on an unvaccinated nurse who is most likely already immune due to natural exposure? Mandates also represent an encroachment on freedom and liberties, and call into question the motives behind these mandates when the science shows no public benefit compared with the costs.