Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Available online 26 November 2017
Study – Aluminium in brain tissue in autism
Matthew Mold – a, Dorcas Umar – b, Andrew King – c, Christopher Exley – a,
a The Birchall Centre, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG, United Kingdom
b Life Sciences, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG, United Kingdom
c Department of Clinical Neuropathology, Kings College Hospital, London, SE5 9RS, United Kingdom
Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown aetiology. It is suggested to involve both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors including in the latter environmental toxins. Human exposure to the environmental toxin aluminium has been linked, if tentatively, to autism spectrum disorder. Herein we have used transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to measure, for the first time, the aluminium content of brain tissue from donors with a diagnosis of autism. We have also used an aluminium-selective fluor to identify aluminium in brain tissue using fluorescence microscopy. The aluminium content of brain tissue in autism was consistently high. The mean (standard deviation) aluminium content across all 5 individuals for each lobe were 3.82(5.42), 2.30(2.00), 2.79(4.05) and 3.82(5.17) μg/g dry wt. for the occipital, frontal, temporal and parietal lobes respectively. These are some of the highest values for aluminium in human brain tissue yet recorded and one has to question why, for example, the aluminium content of the occipital lobe of a 15 year old boy would be 8.74 (11.59) μg/g dry wt.? Aluminium-selective fluorescence microscopy was used to identify aluminium in brain tissue in 10 donors. While aluminium was imaged associated with neurones it appeared to be present intracellularly in microglia-like cells and other inflammatory non-neuronal cells in the meninges, vasculature, grey and white matter. The pre-eminence of intracellular aluminium associated with non-neuronal cells was a standout observation in autism brain tissue and may offer clues as to both the origin of the brain aluminium as well as a putative role in autism spectrum disorder.
US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – Oct 2012
Goldman GS, Miller NZ.
Computer Scientist, Pearblossom, CA 93553, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
In this study, the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database, 1990-2010, was investigated; cases that specified either hospitalization or death were identified among 38,801 reports of infants. Based on the types of vaccines reported, the actual number of vaccine doses administered, from 1 to 8, was summed for each case. Linear regression analysis of hospitalization rates as a function of (a) the number of reported vaccine doses and (b) patient age yielded a linear relationship with r(2) = 0.91 and r(2) = 0.95, respectively. The hospitalization rate increased linearly from 11.0% (107 of 969) for 2 doses to 23.5% (661 of 2817) for 8 doses and decreased linearly from 20.1% (154 of 765) for children aged <0.1 year to 10.7% (86 of 801) for children aged 0.9 year. The rate ratio (RR) of the mortality rate for 5-8 vaccine doses to 1-4 vaccine doses is 1.5 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4-1.7), indicating a statistically significant increase from 3.6% (95% CI, 3.2-3.9%) deaths associated with 1-4 vaccine doses to 5.5% (95% CI, 5.2-5.7%) associated with 5-8 vaccine doses. The male-to-female mortality RR was 1.4 (95% CI, 1.3-1.5). Our findings show a positive correlation between the number of vaccine doses administered and the percentage of hospitalizations and deaths. Since vaccines are given to millions of infants annually, it is imperative that health authorities have scientific data from synergistic toxicity studies on all combinations of vaccines that infants might receive. Finding ways to increase vaccine safety should be the highest priority.
The Association of American Physicians and Surgeons notes that, because of public concerns that mercury (as thimerosal) in childhood vaccines might be contributing to soaring rates of autism, this component was mostly phased out as a “precaution.” Autism rates continued to rise, prompting authorities to assert that autism is not linked to mercury in vaccines and that vaccination policies are safe and appropriate, writes Neil Z. Miller in the winter issue of the Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons.
Aluminum is a neurotoxin, yet infants and young children are repeatedly injected with aluminum adjuvants from multiple vaccines during critical periods of brain development. Numerous studies provide credible evidence that aluminum adversely affects important biological functions and may contribute to neurodegenerative and autoimmune disorders. It is impossible to predetermine which vaccinated babies will succumb to aluminum poisoning. Aluminum-free health options are needed.
Discovery of “Shockingly High” Levels of Aluminum in Brains of Individuals with Autism Suggests Link with Aluminum-Containing Vaccines
Children medical safety research institute
Study Shows Evidence of Inflammatory Cells Loaded with Aluminum Crossing the Blood-Brain Barrier and Meningeal Membranes
(November 27, 2017) Staffordshire, UK — A new study published in the Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology provides the strongest indication yet that aluminum is an etiological agent in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to researchers at Keele University in England.
The study used transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to measure, for the first time, the aluminum content of brain tissue from five donors who had died with diagnoses of ASD. The results showed the donors to have had some of the highest values of aluminum yet measured in human brain tissue.
The mean (standard deviation) aluminum content across all five individuals for each lobe were 3.82(5.42), 2.30(2.00), 2.79(4.05) and 3.82(5.17) mg/g dry wt. for the occipital, frontal, temporal and parietal lobes respectively. Previous measurements of 60 brains from humans not diagnosed with ASD showed an average content of 1 mg/g dry wt. of brain tissue.
“One has to wonder why aluminum in the occipital lobe of a 15-year-old boy with autism would be a value that is at least 10 times higher than what might be considered acceptable for an elderly adult?” said Christopher Exley PhD, Professor in Bioinorganic Chemistry and author of the study. Another ground-breaking study by Exley and his team, published earlier in the year, identified similarly high levels of aluminum in the brains of individuals who died of familial Alzheimer’s disease.
When it comes to the most widely used adjuvant ingredient found within vaccines, aluminum, many questions have yet to be answered, particularly when it comes to where the aluminum goes after injection, an issue known as biopersistence.
One reason this question arises is because a causative role has been established in what’s known as macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) lesion in patients who have myalgic encephalomyelitis, or brain inflammation. Myalgia, arthralgia, chronic fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, dysautonomia, and autoimmunity have been temporally linked to aluminium adjuvant-containing vaccine administration (Gherardi and Authier, 2003; Authier et al., 2003; Exley et al., 2009; Rosenblum et al., 2011; Santiago et al., 2014; Brinth et al., 2015; Palmieri et al., 2016).
“Evidence that aluminum-coated particles phagocytozed in the injected muscle and its draining lymph nodes can disseminate within phagocytes throughout the body and slowly accumulate in the brain further suggested that alum safety should be evaluated in the long term.”
US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – Jun 2015
Eidi H – 1,2, David MO – 3, Crépeaux G – 4, Henry L – 5, Joshi V – 6, Berger MH – 7, Sennour M – 8, Cadusseau J – 9,10, Gherardi RK – 11, Curmi PA – 12.
1 Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) – UMR 1204, Université Evry-Val d’Essonne, Laboratoire Structure-Activité des Biomolécules Normales et Pathologiques, Evry, France. email@example.com.
2 Inserm – U955, Université Paris Est, Faculté de Médecine, Créteil, France. firstname.lastname@example.org.
3 Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) – UMR 1204, Université Evry-Val d’Essonne, Laboratoire Structure-Activité des Biomolécules Normales et Pathologiques, Evry, France. MO.David@iut.univ-evry.fr.
4 Inserm – U955, Université Paris Est, Faculté de Médecine, Créteil, France. email@example.com.
5 Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) – UMR 1204, Université Evry-Val d’Essonne, Laboratoire Structure-Activité des Biomolécules Normales et Pathologiques, Evry, France. firstname.lastname@example.org.
6 Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) – UMR 1204, Université Evry-Val d’Essonne, Laboratoire Structure-Activité des Biomolécules Normales et Pathologiques, Evry, France. email@example.com.
7 Laboratoire Pierre-Marie Fourt, Centre des Matériaux de l’Ecole des Mines de Paris and CNRS UMR 7633, Evry, France. firstname.lastname@example.org.
8 Laboratoire Pierre-Marie Fourt, Centre des Matériaux de l’Ecole des Mines de Paris and CNRS UMR 7633, Evry, France. email@example.com.
9 Inserm – U955, Université Paris Est, Faculté de Médecine, Créteil, France. firstname.lastname@example.org.
10 Faculté des Sciences et Technologie UPEC, Créteil, France. email@example.com.
11 Inserm – U955, Université Paris Est, Faculté de Médecine, Créteil, France. firstname.lastname@example.org.
12 Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) – UMR 1204, Université Evry-Val d’Essonne, Laboratoire Structure-Activité des Biomolécules Normales et Pathologiques, Evry, France. email@example.com.
Aluminum oxyhydroxide (alum) is a crystalline compound widely used as an immunologic adjuvant of vaccines. Concerns linked to alum particles have emerged following recognition of their causative role in the so-called macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) lesion in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis, revealing an unexpectedly long-lasting biopersistence of alum within immune cells and a fundamental misconception of its biodisposition. Evidence that aluminum-coated particles phagocytozed in the injected muscle and its draining lymph nodes can disseminate within phagocytes throughout the body and slowly accumulate in the brain further suggested that alum safety should be evaluated in the long term. However, lack of specific staining makes difficult the assessment of low quantities of bona fide alum adjuvant particles in tissues.
We explored the feasibility of using fluorescent functionalized nanodiamonds (mfNDs) as a permanent label of alum (Alhydrogel(®)). mfNDs have a specific and perfectly photostable fluorescence based on the presence within the diamond lattice of nitrogen-vacancy centers (NV centers). As the NV center does not bleach, it allows the microspectrometric detection of mfNDs at very low levels and in the long-term. We thus developed fluorescent nanodiamonds functionalized by hyperbranched polyglycerol (mfNDs) allowing good coupling and stability of alum:mfNDs (AluDia) complexes. Specificities of AluDia complexes were comparable to the whole reference vaccine (anti-hepatitis B vaccine) in terms of particle size and zeta potential.
In vivo, AluDia injection was followed by prompt phagocytosis and AluDia particles remained easily detectable by the specific signal of the fND particles in the injected muscle, draining lymph nodes, spleen, liver and brain. In vitro, mfNDs had low toxicity on THP-1 cells and AluDia showed cell toxicity similar to alum alone. Expectedly, AluDia elicited autophagy, and allowed highly specific detection of small amounts of alum in autophagosomes.
The fluorescent nanodiamond technology is able to overcome the limitations of previously used organic fluorophores, thus appearing as a choice methodology for studying distribution, persistence and long-term neurotoxicity of alum adjuvants and beyond of other types of nanoparticles.
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Testimony by Phil Robertson from Duck Dynasty
1 Corinthians 15 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand;
2 by which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain.
3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures;
4 and that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:
Hebrews 6 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Therefore leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection; not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of faith toward God,
2 of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment.
3 And this will we do, if God permit.
4 For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost,
5 and have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come,
6 if they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame.
7 For the earth which drinketh in the rain that cometh oft upon it, and bringeth forth herbs meet for them by whom it is dressed, receiveth blessing from God:
8 but that which beareth thorns and briers is rejected, and is nigh unto cursing; whose end is to be burned.
1 Who hath believed our report? and to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed?
2 For he shall grow up before him as a tender plant,and as a root out of a dry ground:he hath no form nor comeliness;and when we shall see him,there is no beauty that we should desire him.
3 He is despised and rejected of men;a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief:and we hid as it were our faces from him;he was despised, and we esteemed him not.
4 Surely he hath borne our griefs,and carried our sorrows:yet we did esteem him stricken,smitten of God, and afflicted.
5 But he was wounded for our transgressions,he was bruised for our iniquities:the chastisement of our peace was upon him;and with his stripes we are healed.
6 All we like sheep have gone astray;we have turned every one to his own way;and the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all.
7 He was oppressed, and he was afflicted,yet he opened not his mouth:he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter,and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb,so he openeth not his mouth.
8 He was taken from prison and from judgment:and who shall declare his generation? for he was cut off out of the land of the living:for the transgression of my people was he stricken.
9 And he made his grave with the wicked,and with the rich in his death;because he had done no violence,neither was any deceit in his mouth.
10 Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him;he hath put him to grief:when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin,he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days,and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand.
11 He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied:by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many;for he shall bear their iniquities.
12 Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great,and he shall divide the spoil with the strong;because he hath poured out his soul unto death:and he was numbered with the transgressors;and he bare the sin of many,and made intercession for the transgressors.