Vaccine News – VAXXED TV – Two of my three children are injured by vaccines & Study – Correlations Between Gene Expression and Mercury Levels in Blood of Boys With and Without Autism

US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – Jan 2011

Study – Correlations Between Gene Expression and Mercury Levels in Blood of Boys With and Without Autism

Boryana Stamova,corresponding author – 1,9,10
Peter G. Green,2
Yingfang Tian,1,9,10
Irva Hertz-Picciotto,3,9,10
Isaac N. Pessah,4,9,10
Robin Hansen,5,9,10
Xiaowei Yang,3
Jennifer Teng,1
Jeffrey P. Gregg,6,9,10
Paul Ashwood,7,9,10
Judy Van de Water,8,9,10
and Frank R. Sharp1,9,10
1 – Department of Neurology, University of California at Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817 USA
2 – Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, CA USA
3 – Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California at Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA USA
4 – Department of VM: Molecular Biosciences, University of California at Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA USA
5 – Department of Pediatrics, University of California at Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA USA
6 – Department of Pathology, University of California at Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA USA
7 – Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California at Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA USA
8 – Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA USA
9 – The MIND Institute, University of California at Davis Medical Center, 2805 50th Street, Room 2434, Sacramento, CA USA
10 – UC Davis Center for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention, Sacramento, CA USA

Abstract
Gene expression in blood was correlated with mercury levels in blood of 2- to 5-year-old boys with autism (AU) compared to age-matched typically developing (TD) control boys. This was done to address the possibility that the two groups might metabolize toxicants, such as mercury, differently. RNA was isolated from blood and gene expression assessed on whole genome Affymetrix Human U133 expression microarrays. Mercury levels were measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed and partial correlations between gene expression and mercury levels were calculated, after correcting for age and batch effects. To reduce false positives, only genes shared by the ANCOVA models were analyzed. Of the 26 genes that correlated with mercury levels in both AU and TD boys, 11 were significantly different between the groups (P(Diagnosis*Mercury) ≤ 0.05). The expression of a large number of genes (n = 316) correlated with mercury levels in TD but not in AU boys (P ≤ 0.05), the most represented biological functions being cell death and cell morphology. Expression of 189 genes correlated with mercury levels in AU but not in TD boys (P ≤ 0.05), the most represented biological functions being cell morphology, amino acid metabolism, and antigen presentation. These data and those in our companion study on correlation of gene expression and lead levels show that AU and TD children display different correlations between transcript levels and low levels of mercury and lead. These findings might suggest different genetic transcriptional programs associated with mercury in AU compared to TD children.

US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – Nov 1982

Study – Abnormal immune response to brain tissue antigen in the syndrome of autism

Abstract
Cell-mediated immune response to human myelin basic protein was studied by the macrophage migration inhibition factor test in 17 autistic patients and a control group of 11 patients suffering from other mental diseases included in the differential diagnosis of the syndrome of autism. Of the 17 autistic patients, 13 demonstrated inhibition of macrophage migration, whereas none of the nonautistic patients showed such a response. The results indicate the existence of a cell-mediated immune response to brain tissue in the syndrome of autism.

US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – Apr 2000

Study – Detection and sequencing of measles virus from peripheral mononuclear cells from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and autism.

Kawashima H, Mori T, Kashiwagi Y, Takekuma K, Hoshika A, Wakefield A.
Author information
Department of Paediatrics, Tokyo Medical University, Japan.

Abstract
It has been reported that measles virus may be present in the intestine of patients with Crohn’s disease. Additionally, a new syndrome has been reported in children with autism who exhibited developmental regression and gastrointestinal symptoms (autistic enterocolitis), in some cases soon after MMR vaccine. It is not known whether the virus, if confirmed to be present in these patients, derives from either wild strains or vaccine strains. In order to characterize the strains that may be present, we have carried out the detection of measles genomic RNA in peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC) in eight patients with Crohn’s disease, three patients with ulcerative colitis, and nine children with autistic enterocolitis. As controls, we examined healthy children and patients with SSPE, SLE, HIV-1 (a total of eight cases). RNA was purified from PBMC by Ficoll-paque, followed by reverse transcription using AMV; cDNAs were subjected to nested PCR for detection of specific regions of the hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) gene regions. Positive samples were sequenced directly, in nucleotides 8393-8676 (H region) or 5325-5465 (from noncoding F to coding F region). One of eight patients with Crohn disease, one of three patients with ulcerative colitis, and three of nine children with autism, were positive. Controls were all negative. The sequences obtained from the patients with Crohn’s disease shared the characteristics with wild-strain virus. The sequences obtained from the patients with ulcerative colitis and children with autism were consistent with being vaccine strains. The results were concordant with the exposure history of the patients. Persistence of measles virus was confirmed in PBMC in some patients with chronic intestinal inflammation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

VAXXED TV – I gave up being a nurse because of vaccines

 

 

 

 

 

My mother was never the same after vaccinations

 

Two of my three children are injured by vaccines

My vaccinated child gave my 4 month old baby chickenpox

The Lindermans – possible strong language!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hep B vaccine made me sick

 

 

 

 

Joni Abbott interview

 

 

My niece is not vaccinated because of me

I am not having anymore vaccines

Vaccinated versus unvaxxed

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ONE FOR ISRAEL Ministry – Jewish Johnathan Ben-David forgave his killer and you would not believe why!!!

 

 

 

How to accept Jesus Christ as your personal Saviour

Testimony by Phil Robertson from Duck Dynasty

1 Corinthians 15 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand;
2 by which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain.
3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures;
4 and that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:

Hebrews 6 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Therefore leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection; not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of faith toward God,
2 of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment.
3 And this will we do, if God permit.
4 For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost,
5 and have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come,
6 if they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame.
7 For the earth which drinketh in the rain that cometh oft upon it, and bringeth forth herbs meet for them by whom it is dressed, receiveth blessing from God:
8 but that which beareth thorns and briers is rejected, and is nigh unto cursing; whose end is to be burned.

Isaiah 53 – Old testament Prophecy about Jesus

1 Who hath believed our report? and to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed?
2 For he shall grow up before him as a tender plant,and as a root out of a dry ground:he hath no form nor comeliness;and when we shall see him,there is no beauty that we should desire him.
3 He is despised and rejected of men;a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief:and we hid as it were our faces from him;he was despised, and we esteemed him not.
4 Surely he hath borne our griefs,and carried our sorrows:yet we did esteem him stricken,smitten of God, and afflicted.
5 But he was wounded for our transgressions,he was bruised for our iniquities:the chastisement of our peace was upon him;and with his stripes we are healed.
6 All we like sheep have gone astray;we have turned every one to his own way;and the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all.
7 He was oppressed, and he was afflicted,yet he opened not his mouth:he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter,and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb,so he openeth not his mouth.
8 He was taken from prison and from judgment:and who shall declare his generation? for he was cut off out of the land of the living:for the transgression of my people was he stricken.
9 And he made his grave with the wicked,and with the rich in his death;because he had done no violence,neither was any deceit in his mouth.
10 Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him;he hath put him to grief:when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin,he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days,and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand.
11 He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied:by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many;for he shall bear their iniquities.
12 Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great,and he shall divide the spoil with the strong;because he hath poured out his soul unto death:and he was numbered with the transgressors;and he bare the sin of many,and made intercession for the transgressors.

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Vaccine News – Study – B-Lymphocytes from a Population of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings Exhibit Hypersensitivity to Thimerosal

VAXXED TV – VaxXed Stories: Eric and Ronnie in Denver, Colorado
Includes music and footage from Ronnie’s video for Eric, “Eric’s life before and after the Vaccine”. See it here:

Vaccines killed my 4 year old son

My own VaxXed versus unvaccinated

8 children- unvaccinated and healthy

Vaccine injuries

Vaxxed. Partially Vaxxed and unvaccinated

Hep B injured me

Unlocking key to autism

MMR vaccines gave my sons autism

Court ordered MMR on my son

A study published in the Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues by the Department of Economics and Finance at the University of New York shows how researchers suspect one or more environmental triggers are needed to develop autism, regardless of whether individuals have a genetic predisposition or not. They determined that one of those triggers might be the “battery of vaccinations that young children receive.” Researchers found a positive and statistically significant relationship between autism and vaccinations. They determined that the higher the proportion of children receiving recommended vaccinations, the higher the prevalence of autism. A 1 % increase in vaccination was associated with an additional 680 children having autism. The results suggest that vaccines may be linked to autism and encourages more in depth study before continually administering these vaccines.

Study – A positive association found between autism prevalence and childhood vaccination uptake across the U.S. population.

US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – 2011

Delong G.
Author information
Department of Economics and Finance, Baruch College/City University of New York, New York, New York, USA. gayle.delong@baruch.cuny.edu

Abstract
The reason for the rapid rise of autism in the United States that began in the 1990s is a mystery. Although individuals probably have a genetic predisposition to develop autism, researchers suspect that one or more environmental triggers are also needed. One of those triggers might be the battery of vaccinations that young children receive. Using regression analysis and controlling for family income and ethnicity, the relationship between the proportion of children who received the recommended vaccines by age 2 years and the prevalence of autism (AUT) or speech or language impairment (SLI) in each U.S. state from 2001 and 2007 was determined. A positive and statistically significant relationship was found: The higher the proportion of children receiving recommended vaccinations, the higher was the prevalence of AUT or SLI. A 1% increase in vaccination was associated with an additional 680 children having AUT or SLI. Neither parental behavior nor access to care affected the results, since vaccination proportions were not significantly related (statistically) to any other disability or to the number of pediatricians in a U.S. state. The results suggest that although mercury has been removed from many vaccines, other culprits may link vaccines to autism. Further study into the relationship between vaccines and autism is warranted.

A study published in the Journal of Toxicology by the Department of Neurosurgery at The Methodist Neurological Institute in Houston has shown that ASD is a disorder caused by a problem in brain development. They looked at B-cells and their sensitivity levels to thimerosal, a commonly used additive in many vaccines. They determined that ASD patients have a heightened sensitivity to thimerosal which would restrict cell proliferation that is typically found after vaccination. The research shows that individuals who have this hypersensitivity to thimerosal could make them highly susceptible to toxins like thimerosal, and that individuals with a mild mitochondrial defect may be affected by thimerosal. The fact that ASD patients’ B cells exhibit hypersensitivity to thimerosal tells us something.

Study – B-Lymphocytes from a Population of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings Exhibit Hypersensitivity to Thimerosal

Journal of Toxicology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 801517, 11 pages

Martyn A. Sharpe, Taylor L. Gist, and David S. Baskin
Department of Neurosurgery, The Methodist Neurological Institute, 6560 Fannin Street, Scurlock Tower No. 944, Houston, TX 77030, USA

Abstract
The role of thimerosal containing vaccines in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been an area of intense debate, as has the presence of mercury dental amalgams and fish ingestion by pregnant mothers. We studied the effects of thimerosal on cell proliferation and mitochondrial function from B-lymphocytes taken from individuals with autism, their nonautistic twins, and their nontwin siblings. Eleven families were examined and compared to matched controls. B-cells were grown with increasing levels of thimerosal, and various assays (LDH, XTT, DCFH, etc.) were performed to examine the effects on cellular proliferation and mitochondrial function. A subpopulation of eight individuals (4 ASD, 2 twins, and 2 siblings) from four of the families showed thimerosal hypersensitivity, whereas none of the control individuals displayed this response. The thimerosal concentration required to inhibit cell proliferation in these individuals was only 40% of controls. Cells hypersensitive to thimerosal also had higher levels of oxidative stress markers, protein carbonyls, and oxidant generation. This suggests certain individuals with a mild mitochondrial defect may be highly susceptible to mitochondrial specific toxins like the vaccine preservative thimerosal.

A study published in the Journal of Biomedical Sciences determined that the autoimmunity to the central nervous system may play a causal role in autism. Researchers discovered that because many autistic children harbour elevated levels of measles antibodies, they should conduct a serological study of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and myelin basic protein (MBP) autoantibodies. They used serum samples of 125 autistic children and 92 controlled children. Their analysis showed a significant increase in the level of MMR antibodies in autistic children. The study concludes that the autistic children had an inappropriate or abnormal antibody response to MMR. The study determined that autism could be a result from an atypical measles infection that produces neurological symptoms in some children. The source of this virus could be a variant of MV, or it could be the MMR vaccine.

Study – Abnormal measles-mumps-rubella antibodies and CNS autoimmunity in children with autism.

US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – 2002

Singh VK, Lin SX, Newell E, Nelson C.
Author information
Department of Biology and Biotechnology Center, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA. singhvk@cc.usu.edu

Abstract
Autoimmunity to the central nervous system (CNS), especially to myelin basic protein (MBP), may play a causal role in autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder. Because many autistic children harbor elevated levels of measles antibodies, we conducted a serological study of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and MBP autoantibodies. Using serum samples of 125 autistic children and 92 control children, antibodies were assayed by ELISA or immunoblotting methods. ELISA analysis showed a significant increase in the level of MMR antibodies in autistic children. Immunoblotting analysis revealed the presence of an unusual MMR antibody in 75 of 125 (60%) autistic sera but not in control sera. This antibody specifically detected a protein of 73-75 kD of MMR. This protein band, as analyzed with monoclonal antibodies, was immunopositive for measles hemagglutinin (HA) protein but not for measles nucleoprotein and rubella or mumps viral proteins. Thus the MMR antibody in autistic sera detected measles HA protein, which is unique to the measles subunit of the vaccine. Furthermore, over 90% of MMR antibody-positive autistic sera were also positive for MBP autoantibodies, suggesting a strong association between MMR and CNS autoimmunity in autism. Stemming from this evidence, we suggest that an inappropriate antibody response to MMR, specifically the measles component thereof, might be related to pathogenesis of autism.

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How to accept Jesus Christ as your personal Saviour

Testimony by Phil Robertson from Duck Dynasty

1 Corinthians 15 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand;
2 by which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain.
3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures;
4 and that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:

Hebrews 6 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Therefore leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection; not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of faith toward God,
2 of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment.
3 And this will we do, if God permit.
4 For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost,
5 and have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come,
6 if they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame.
7 For the earth which drinketh in the rain that cometh oft upon it, and bringeth forth herbs meet for them by whom it is dressed, receiveth blessing from God:
8 but that which beareth thorns and briers is rejected, and is nigh unto cursing; whose end is to be burned.

 

Vaccine News – Vaccine industry in panic as scientific study solves the riddle of why flu shots don’t work

Vaccine industry in panic as scientific study solves the riddle of why flu shots don’t work
Wednesday, November 01, 2017
The flu shot is a quack science medical hoax. While some vaccines do confer immunization effectiveness, the flu shot isn’t one of them. Recent studies, for example, have proven that flu shots sharply weaken immunity in subsequent years following immunization. In some years, the flu shot viral strains are completely wrong, offering no immunity at all to influenza strains circulating in the world. Even when flu shots are the “right” strain, flu vaccine insert sheets readily admit the shots have not been subjected to double blind placebo controlled studies, and there is no legitimate scientific evidence whatsoever that supports the claim that each year’s flu vaccine confers meaningful immunity.

The Ohio State University – Wexner medical center
Study Charts Flu Shot’s Impact on Pregnant Women and Their Babies
In all, researchers followed 141 pregnant women, 91 of whom received a flu shot in the previous year, 50 who had not. “We actually found that those who didn’t get a flu shot had a better initial immune response to the vaccine,” said Christian. “On the other hand, for those who tend to get flu shots year after year, their peak antibody response becomes weakened over time.”

Study – A two-phase study evaluating the relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccine administration and the risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in the United States

US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – Dec 2013

David A Geier,1 Brian S Hooker,2 Janet K Kern,1,3 Paul G King,4 Lisa K Sykes,4 and Mark R Geiercorresponding author1
1 The Institute of Chronic Illnesses Inc, 14 Redgate Ct, Silver Spring, MD, USA
2 Simpson University, Redding, CA, USA
3 University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX, USA
4 CoMeD Inc, Silver Spring, MD, USA
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
David A Geier: ten.tsacmoc@reiegnelladivad; Brian S Hooker: ude.unospmis@rekoohb; Janet K Kern: ten.riawfd@nrekj; Paul G King: moc.liamg@dhpgnikgluap; Lisa K Sykes: ten.nozrev@5enolkys; Mark R Geier: ten.tsacmoc@reiegm

Abstract

Background
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by standardized criteria of qualitative impairments in social interaction, qualitative impairments in communication, and restricted and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. A significant number of children diagnosed with ASD suffer a loss of previously-acquired skills, which is suggestive of neurodegeneration or a type of progressive encephalopathy with an etiological pathogenic basis occurring after birth. To date, the etiology of ASD remains under debate, however, many studies suggest toxicity, especially from mercury (Hg), in individuals diagnosed with an ASD. The present study evaluated concerns about the toxic effects of organic-Hg exposure from Thimerosal (49.55% Hg by weight) in childhood vaccines by conducting a two-phased (hypothesis generating/hypothesis testing) study with documented exposure to varying levels of Thimerosal from vaccinations.

Methods
A hypothesis generating cohort study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between exposure to organic-Hg from a Thimerosal-containing Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular-Pertussis (DTaP) vaccine in comparison to a Thimerosal-free DTaP vaccine administered, from 1998 through 2000, for the risk of ASD as reported in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database (phase I). A hypothesis testing case–control study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between organic-Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines administered at specific intervals in the first six months of life among cases diagnosed with an ASD and controls born between 1991 through 1999 in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) database (phase II).

Results
In phase I, it was observed that there was a significantly increased risk ratio for the incidence of ASD reported following the Thimerosal-containing DTaP vaccine in comparison to the Thimerosal-free DTaP vaccine. In phase II, it was observed that cases diagnosed with an ASD were significantly more likely than controls to receive increased organic-Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine administered within the first, second, and sixth month of life.

Conclusions
Routine childhood vaccination is an important public health tool to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases, but the present study provides new epidemiological evidence supporting an association between increasing organic-Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the subsequent risk of an ASD diagnosis.

Study – Adverse event reports after tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccines in pregnant women.

Authors
Zheteyeva YA1, Moro PL, Tepper NK, Rasmussen SA, Barash FE, Revzina NV, Kissin D, Lewis PW, Yue X, Haber P, Tokars JI, Vellozzi C, Broder KR.
Author information
1 Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) of pregnant women who received tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap).

STUDY DESIGN: We searched VAERS for reports of pregnant women who received Tdap from Jan. 1, 2005, through June 30, 2010. We conducted a clinical review of reports and available medical records.

RESULTS: We identified 132 reports of Tdap administered to pregnant women; 55 (42%) described no adverse event (AE). No maternal or infant deaths were reported. The most frequent pregnancy-specific AE was spontaneous abortion in 22 (16.7%) reports. Injection site reactions were the most frequent non-pregnancy-specific AE found in 6 (4.5%) reports. One report with a major congenital anomaly (gastroschisis) was identified.

CONCLUSION: During a time when Tdap was not routinely recommended in pregnancy, review of reports to VAERS in pregnant women after Tdap did not identify any concerning patterns in maternal, infant, or fetal outcomes.

VAXXED TV – Doctors are all singing from the same hymn sheet
Mother shares her frustrations with the medical industry in trying to deal with her child’s vaccine injuries.
interview recorded on April 29th, 2017 in The United Kingdom Edited by TJ Jones

He was seizing over and over and over
Mother shares story of events of her son and his vaccine reactions.
interview recorded on April 29th, 2017 in The United Kingdom Edited by TJ Jones

All 3 of children are injured from vaccines

Vaccines gave my son autism

My grandson has autism from vaccines

Unvaccinated

My daughter has autism from vaccines

Flu vaccine killed my daughter

My daughter has diabetes from vaccines

Vaccines killed my baby boy

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How to accept Jesus Christ as your personal Saviour

Testimony by Phil Robertson from Duck Dynasty

1 Corinthians 15 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand;
2 by which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain.
3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures;
4 and that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:

Hebrews 6 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Therefore leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection; not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of faith toward God,
2 of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment.
3 And this will we do, if God permit.
4 For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost,
5 and have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come,
6 if they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame.
7 For the earth which drinketh in the rain that cometh oft upon it, and bringeth forth herbs meet for them by whom it is dressed, receiveth blessing from God:
8 but that which beareth thorns and briers is rejected, and is nigh unto cursing; whose end is to be burned.

Vaccine News – I saw an immediate change – VAXXED TV

VAXXED TV – Andy Wakefield

I saw an immediate change
Mother recalls accounts of her son’s changes after vaccination.
Interview recorded on May 6th, 2017 in The United Kingdom

I could not shake the fatigue
Sharon recalls her own accounts of her vaccine responses as well as those of her children.
Interview recorded on May 6th, 2017 in The United Kingdom

Sheila Ealey brings down the house with the biblical story of Gideon! #TxMFA #TxMFA2017

Del Bigtree Speaks at #TxMFA2017 in Houston, Texas
Del Bigtree delivers an inspiring speech concerning the importance of the perception of one’s adversary. What do Tiger Woods, Mike Tyson, Paul Offit, Dorit Reiss, and Richard Pan all have in common?

Stephanie Seneff, PhD Computer Scientist at MIT speaks at #TxMFA #TxMFA2017
Dr. Stephanie Seneff, PhD Computer Scientist of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), conveys some of the issues surrounding the ubiquitous toxic herbicide, RoundUp (active ingredient, Glyphosate), and its shocking presence in vaccination samples.

Jim Meehan MD

Dr. Ted Fogarty #vaxxed #PrayBig

Joshua Coleman #vaxxed #PrayBig

Nation of Islam #vaxxed #PrayBig

Study – The toxicology of mercury: Current research and emerging trends.

US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – Nov 2017

Bjørklund G – 1, Dadar M – 2, Mutter J – 3, Aaseth J – 4.
Author information
1 Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine, Toften 24, 8610 Mo i Rana, Norway. Electronic address: bjorklund@conem.org.
2 Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.
3 Paracelsus Clinica al Ronc, Castaneda, Switzerland.
4 Innlandet Hospital Trust and Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway.

Abstract
Mercury (Hg) is a persistent bio-accumulative toxic metal with unique physicochemical properties of public health concern since their natural and anthropogenic diffusions still induce high risk to human and environmental health. The goal of this review was to analyze scientific literature evaluating the role of global concerns over Hg exposure due to human exposure to ingestion of contaminated seafood (methyl-Hg) as well as elemental Hg levels of dental amalgam fillings (metallic Hg), vaccines (ethyl-Hg) and contaminated water and air (Hg chloride). Mercury has been recognized as a neurotoxicant as well as immunotoxic and designated by the World Health Organization as one of the ten most dangerous chemicals to public health. It has been shown that the half-life of inorganic Hg in human brains is several years to several decades. Mercury occurs in the environment under different chemical forms as elemental Hg (metallic), inorganic and organic Hg. Despite the raising understanding of the Hg toxicokinetics, there is still fully justified to further explore the emerging theories about its bioavailability and adverse effects in humans. In this review, we describe current research and emerging trends in Hg toxicity with the purpose of providing up-to-date information for a better understanding of the kinetics of this metal, presenting comprehensive knowledge on published data analyzing its metabolism, interaction with other metals, distribution, internal doses and targets, and reservoir organs.

Study – Systematic Review and Meta-analysis: When One Study Is Just not Enough

Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

Amit X. Garg*, Dan Hackam † , Marcello Tonelli ‡
– Author Affiliations
*Division of Nephrology and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Western Ontario, London, and †Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, and Cardiac Rehabilitation and Secondary Prevention Program, Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, Toronto, Ontario, and ‡Division of Nephrology and Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, and Institute of Health Economics, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Conclusions
Like all types of research, systematic reviews and meta-analyses have both potential strengths and weaknesses. With the growth of renal clinical studies, an increasing number of these types of summary publications will certainly become available to nephrologists, researchers, administrators, and policy makers who seek to keep abreast of recent developments. To maximize their advantages, it is essential that future reviews be conducted and reported properly, with judicious interpretation by the discriminating reader.

Study – The association between mercury levels and autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Volume 44, December 2017, Pages 289-297

Abstract

Background & aims
The relationship between mercury and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has always been a topic of controversy among researchers. This study aimed to assess the relationship between ASD and mercury levels in hair, urine, blood, red blood cells (RBC), and brain through a meta-analysis.

Methods
A systematic search was performed in several databases including PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane register of controlled trials, Google Scholar, Scopus, and MagIran until June 2017. Case-control studies evaluating concentration of total mercury in different tissues of ASD patients and comparing them to the healthy subjects (control group) were identified. Necessary data were extracted and random effects model was used to calculate overall effect and its 95% corresponding confidence interval (CI) from the effect sizes.

Results
A total of 44 studies were identified that met the necessary criteria for meta-analysis. The mercury level in whole blood (Hedges = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.12, 0.74, P = 0.007), RBC (Hedges = 1.61, 95% CI: 0.83, 2.38, P < 0.001), and brain (0.61 ng/g, 95% CI, 0.02, 1.19, P = 0.043) was significantly higher in ASD patients than healthy subjects, whereas mercury level in hair (−0.14 mg/g, 95% CI: −0.28, −0.01, P = 0.039) was significantly lower in ASD patients than healthy subjects. The mercury level in urine was not significantly different between ASD patients and healthy subjects (0.51 mg/g creatinine, 95% CI: −0.14, 1.16, P = 0.121).

Conclusions
Results of the current meta-analysis revealed that mercury is an important causal factor in the etiology of ASD. It seems that the detoxification and excretory mechanisms are impaired in ASD patients which lead to accumulation of mercury in the body. Future additional studies on mercury levels in different tissues of ASD patients should be undertaken.

****************************************************

How to accept Jesus Christ as your personal Saviour

Testimony by Phil Robertson from Duck Dynasty

1 Corinthians 15 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand;
2 by which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain.
3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures;
4 and that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:

Hebrews 6 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Therefore leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection; not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of faith toward God,
2 of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment.
3 And this will we do, if God permit.
4 For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost,
5 and have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come,
6 if they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame.
7 For the earth which drinketh in the rain that cometh oft upon it, and bringeth forth herbs meet for them by whom it is dressed, receiveth blessing from God:
8 but that which beareth thorns and briers is rejected, and is nigh unto cursing; whose end is to be burned.

Vaccine News – Mother-of-two dies from flu despite being vaccinated

World Renowned Genetics Doctor Sees Relationship Between Fetal Cells Used in Vaccines and Increasing Autism Rates
Health Impact News
Dr. Theresa Deisher recently granted an interview with the VAXXED team to discuss, among other things, vaccines and autism.
Theresa Deisher, Ph.D., is the president of Sound Choice Pharmaceutical Institute (SCPI), a cutting edge biomedical research organization.
Dr. Deisher is a genetic engineer with over 20 years experience in the pharmaceutical industry, from basic human biology through clinical trials.
Dr. Deisher obtained her Ph.D. in Molecular and Cellular Physiology from Stanford University and has spent over 20 years in commercial biotechnology. Prior to founding AVM Biotechnology and Sound Choice Pharmaceutical Institute (SCPI), she worked with leading biotechnology companies, including Genentech, Repligen, ZymoGenetics, Immunex and Amgen.
Dr. Deisher is an inventor on 23 issued U.S. patents, and her discoveries have led to clinical trials of FGF18 for osteoarthritis and cartilage repair, and for Factor XIII for surgical bleeding. Dr. Deisher was the first person to discover adult cardiac derived stem cells, and has been a champion of adult stem cell research, both professionally and privately, for two decades. Dr. Deisher was a plaintiff in the U.S. federal lawsuit to prohibit use of federal tax payer dollars for embryo destructive research, which was instrumental in steering science towards adult stem cell research, which has led to 14 U.S. FDA approved adult stem cell products and the Washington Post Dec 2013 headline “Scientists Go Ethical in 2013.”
AVM Biotechnology is the marquee prolife biotech company worldwide, certifying that it does not use morally illicit material in any process. SCPI’s mission is to end human trafficking in biomedical research.
Discovering the Link Between Fetal Tissue in Vaccines and Autism
Dr. Deisher states in her VAXXED interview that she looked at the rise in autism rates in the U.K. and its link to the MMR vaccine, originally discovered and published by Dr. Andrew Wakefield, and how the medical establishment tried to discredit Dr. Wakefield’s research.
She notes that one reason given to try and discredit Dr. Wakefield’s research was that MMR vaccination rates remained steady both prior to and after the spike in autism rates in 1988.
However, what she discovered that was not reported was that the manufacturer of the MMR vaccine switched from animal cells to develop cultures to human fetal cells from aborted babies in 1988.

Infant Twins Die Simultaneously After Vaccines, Medical Board Rules ‘Just a Coincidence’
By Erin Elizabeth – February 1, 2017
Given that the sudden and simultaneous deaths of twins rarely occur, you would think- especially given the fact that they had been recently vaccinated– that it would receive quite a bit of attention. However, this story went largely unreported. (In order for twins to meet the criteria for simultaneous SIDS both babies must have died independently and within the same 24 hour time period.)
PubMed reports that identical twin girls, aged 3.5-months and delivered via c-section, were found dead (by their poor momma) in their crib, both laying face up. Not surprisingly, both babies were healthy will no serious medical history. Two days before their death, both of the girls had received their second dose of oral polio, DPT, and their first dose of hepatitis B vaccines. They had a fever the day after the vaccines and were given a teaspoon of acetaminophen.
All that and yet, “the death scene investigation, judicial investigation, parental assessment, macroscopic and microscopic autopsy findings and the toxicological analysis didn’t yield any specific cause of death.” Because the case was so rare it was referred to a board of multidisciplinary medical professionals at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, in the Ministry of Justice, in Istanbul. And yet, the Board still decided that the data they had was consistent with SIDS.

Babys werden mit gedrosseltem Immunsystem geboren
Datum: 02.05.2017
Das Immunsystem von Säuglingen arbeitet augenscheinlich im ersten Jahr nach der Geburt absichtlich auf Sparflamme. Das zeigt eine Studie der Medizinischen Hochschule Hannover sowie der Universitäten Bonn und Münster. Dadurch verhindert die Natur vermutlich, dass die Immunabwehr nach der Geburt zu stark auf Bakterien und Fremdstoffe außerhalb des Mutterleibs reagiert. Die Ergebnisse könnten auch neue therapeutische Ansätze ermöglichen, um Säuglinge vor einer so genannten Sepsis zu schützen. Dabei handelt es sich um eine lebensgefährliche Entzündungsreaktion, die besonders häufig Frühgeborene trifft. Die Arbeit ist in der renommierten Fachzeitschrift „Nature Immunology“ erschienen.
Dass die Immunzellen von Neugeborenen nur in sehr geringem Maße Entzündungen auslösen, ist schon lange bekannt. Bislang dachte man, das Immunsystem sei bei Säuglingen noch nicht ganz ausgereift und daher nicht besonders schlagkräftig. Die Ergebnisse der neuen Studie werfen an dieser Deutung Zweifel auf: „Wir vermuten, dass dieser verminderten Entzündungsantwort eine spezifische und sinnvolle Programmierung zugrunde liegt“, erklärt Dr. Thomas Ulas vom LIMES-Institut der Universität Bonn.
Sobald das Neugeborene den Mutterleib verlässt, kommt es schlagartig mit zahllosen unbekannten Bakterien und Fremdstoffen in Kontakt. „Das »Spar-Programm« verhindert vermutlich, dass die körpereigenen Abwehrtruppen in unzählige Scharmützel verwickelt werden“, sagt Dr. Sabine Pirr von der Medizinischen Hochschule Hannover. Folge könnte sonst nämlich eine lebensgefährliche starke Entzündungsreaktion sein, eine Sepsis. Zudem sind viele der unbekannten Mikroorganismen gar keine Krankheitserreger. So funktioniert der Darm nur dann so, wie er soll, wenn er mit bestimmten Bakterien besiedelt wurde. Auch aus diesem Grund muss sich das Immunsystem zurückhalten.

Mother-of-two dies from flu despite being vaccinated
3:51pm Sep 26, 2017
A touching tribute to a Canberra mother who died of influenza has been posted online after she became the latest victim of Australia’s horror flu season.
Mother-of-two Jennifer Thew spent a week suffering from bad influenza symptoms before she died at Calvary Hospital on Saturday.
It’s understood her daughter Estella, aged 7, has also been sick with the virus.
Thew, who moved to Australia from Germany, was a medical receptionist who had reportedly been vaccinated.
A Go Fund Me page has been set up for the Thew Family by her daughter’s dance school.

Vaccines Produce Homosexuality, Says Italian Scientist Gian Paolo Vanoli
An Italian scientist is arguing that vaccinations produce homosexuality.
Gian Paolo Vanoli, a 70-year-old scientist, journalist and opponent of vaccinations, says that vaccines make people gay.
Vanoli, who’s a proponent of alternative medicine, recently spoke with Vice Italy’s Matteo Lenardon about his ideals.
Via a Huffington Post translation of the Vice interview:

The vaccine is introduced into the child, the child then grows and tries to find its own personality, and if this is inhibited by mercury or other substances present in the vaccine which enter the brain, the child becomes gay. The problem will especially be present in the next generations, because when gays have children, the children will carry along with them the DNA of their parent’s illness. Because homosexuality is a disease, even though the WHO has decided that it is not. Who cares! The reality is that it is so. Each vaccination produces homosexuality, because it prevents the formation of one’s personality. It is a microform of autism, if you will. You will see how many gays there will be in the next generation, it will be a disaster.

Despite these views, Vanoli insists he supports same-sex marriage and gay adoption. He doesn’t “blame” gay people for their “illness,” just as he wouldn’t blame someone who “suffers from cancer or a heart attack,” he told GayStarNews.

“My Family Was Devastated By Vaccines” Tasha Dāvid, AVN President
Tasha has 6 vaccine injured kids and 2 healthy vaccine free kids. Her 6 vaccine injured kids include diagnoses of Autism, ADHD, severe mood swings and severe language disorder, as well as gastrointestinal issues, skin problems, chronic ear infections, chemical sensitivities, and many other health issues. However, her vaccine free kids are very healthy. Her 6 kids who were vaccinated always had more health issues after vaccination, but Tasha never understood that the vaccines were destroying her children because the doctors never told her. Tasha Dāvid is President of Australian Vaccination-skeptics Network Inc. and advocates that parents have complete choice over whether or not to vaccinate. She believes that a vaccine free lifestyle is a healthy lifestyle. Tasha Dāvid suggests that parents do their own research into vaccines and vaccination. Australian Vaccination-skeptics Network Inc. https://www.avn.org.au A http://www.stopmandatoryvaccination.com video production. Copyright © 2017 Larry Cook

Former Merck Rep Says Mandatory Vaccination Is For Profit and Not Public Health
http://www.StopMandatoryVaccination.com – Brandy Vaughan is a former sales rep for Merck & Co. – a vaccine maker – and she details how vaccine companies are using vaccines as a vehicle for massive profit and not public health. Brandy researched the safety of vaccines and found that not only do vaccines contain known toxins that can cause neurological damage, but that vaccine makers do not create the same safety studies for vaccines as they do for other drugs. This lack of true safety research of vaccines combined with the known adverse reactions to vaccination has helped Brandy to decide to never vaccinate her own child. Brandy says giving children a vaccine is like playing Russian roulette with our children and that mandatory vaccination is simply a way for vaccine makers to profit off of our children. Don’t be fooled: we do not need mandatory vaccination.
Stop Mandatory Vaccination
Produced by Larry Cook
Founder and Director of http://www.StopMandatoryVaccination.com
Contribute here: http://www.gofundme.com/ohwupg

 

Vaccine News – Study – Gender-selective toxicity of thimerosal

PubMed.gov – Mar.2009
Abstract
A recent report shows a correlation of the historical use of thimerosal in therapeutic immunizations with the subsequent development of autism; however, this association remains controversial. Autism occurs approximately four times more frequently in males compared to females; thus, studies of thimerosal toxicity should take into consideration gender-selective effects. The present study was originally undertaken to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of thimersosal in male and female CD1 mice. However, during the limited MTD studies, it became apparent that thimerosal has a differential MTD that depends on whether the mouse is male or female. At doses of 38.4-76.8mg/kg using 10% DMSO as diluent, seven of seven male mice compared to zero of seven female mice tested succumbed to thimerosal. Although the thimerosal levels used were very high, as we were originally only trying to determine MTD, it was completely unexpected to observe a difference of the MTD between male and female mice. Thus, our studies, although not directly addressing the controversy surrounding thimerosal and autism, and still preliminary due to small numbers of mice examined, provide, nevertheless, the first report of gender-selective toxicity of thimerosal and indicate that any future studies of thimerosal toxicity should take into consideration gender-specific differences.
PubMed.gov – 15.Mar.2010
Abstract
Mercury (Hg) exposure from dental amalgam fillings and thimerosal in vaccines is not a major health hazard, but adverse health effects cannot be ruled out in a small and more susceptible part of the exposed population. Individual differences in toxicokinetics may explain susceptibility to mercury. Inbred, H-2-congenic A.SW and B10.S mice and their F1- and F2-hybrids were given HgCl2 with 2.0 mg Hg/L drinking water and traces of (203)Hg. Whole-body retention (WBR) was monitored until steady state after 5 weeks, when the organ Hg content was assessed. Despite similar Hg intake, A.SW males attained a 20-30% significantly higher WBR and 2- to 5-fold higher total renal Hg retention/concentration than A.SW females and B10.S mice. A selective renal Hg accumulation but of lower magnitude was seen also in B10.S males compared with females. Differences in WBR and organ Hg accumulation are therefore regulated by non-H-2 genes and gender. Lymph nodes lacked the strain- and gender-dependent Hg accumulation profile of kidney, liver and spleen. After 15 days without Hg A.SW mice showed a 4-fold higher WBR and liver Hg concentration, but 11-fold higher renal Hg concentration, showing the key role for the kidneys in explaining the slower Hg elimination in A.SW mice. The trait causing higher mercury accumulation was not dominantly inherited in the F1 hybrids. F2 mice showed a large inter-individual variation in Hg accumulation, showing that multiple genetic factors influence the Hg toxicokinetics in the mouse. The genetically heterogeneous human population may therefore show a large variation in mercury toxicokinetics.
US National Library of Medicine – National Institutes of Health – Feb.2015
Results
Developmental Domain: ASD Diagnostic Criteria
Social Communication/Social Interaction
Deficits in social communication and social interaction are core factors in the diagnostic criteria of ASD. Impairments in social communication may present as abnormalities in eye contact, poor integration of verbal and nonverbal behaviors, and difficulties understanding the nonverbal communication of others (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). In some cases, persons with ASD may not participate in conversation or struggle with pragmatic language (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Impairments in social interaction include difficulties with social-emotional reciprocity, failure to develop peer relationships, and reduced empathetic understanding and/or response (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
There were 21 articles reviewed on social communication and social interaction in persons with ASD published between 1993 and 2013: 13 case-control studies, 7 cross-sectional studies, and 1 surveillance study. Nine studies were conducted in the United States and 12 studies were conducted at outside of the US. Of these 21 articles, 14 address social communication or other language abilities. In samples of children with varying cognitive abilities, some studies showed no significant differences in communication, conversational deficits, and language levels between males and females with ASD (Andersson et al., 2013; Dawson et al., 2007; Nicholas et al., 2008; Pilowsky et al., 1998; Park et al., 2012a, 2012b; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Mandy et al., 2012; Sipes et al., 2011; Solomon et al., 2012; Amr et al., 2011). One study found that males with ASD had greater expressive and receptive language skills than females with ASD (Carter et al., 2007) and another study found that females with ASD had more impaired social communication skills than males with ASD (Hartley and Sikora, 2009). Conversely, Park et al. (2012b) found that females with ASD had stronger non-verbal communication abilities than males with ASD. The majority of the literature reviewed on social communication found no difference between males and females with ASD, but there is some inconsistency.
The literature on sex differences in social interaction among persons with ASD (13 of 21 articles reviewed) is also inconsistent but generally suggests no significant sex differences in social interaction skills (Andersson et al., 2013; Dawson et al., 2007; Nicholas et al., 2008; Pilowsky et al., 1998; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Park et al. 2012b; Mandy et al., 2012; Sipes et al., 2011; Solomon et al., 2012). In population-level surveillance of eight-year olds, 80 % of children with ASD had poor social-emotional reciprocity with no significant difference between males and females (Nicholas et al., 2008). Szatmari et al. (2012) also found no sex differences in social-emotional reciprocity for children with varying cognitive abilities in a study from the Autism Genome Project. Oppositely, in an age and IQ matched case–control study, female adults with ASD were found to have fewer socio-communication difficulties during interpersonal interaction than male adults with ASD (Lai et al., 2013). Lastly, no sex differences have been noted in emotional reactiveness or being withdrawn (Hartley and Sikora, 2009) and in empathetic understanding and responses (Auyeung et al., 2009).
Cognitive functioning is likely to play a role in these social processes. Lower intellectual abilities are often linked with greater social impairment regardless of sex (Dawson et al., 2007). Among children with high functioning autism (IQ≥70), social skills have been found to be more impaired in female children than male children (Holtmann et al., 2007) and more severe as children aged (McLennan et al., 1993). In contrast, other studies found adult females with high functioning autism to have less socio-communication issues compared to males (Lai et al., 2011) or there were no sex differences in socio-communication skills in older children and adolescents (Holtmann et al., 2007; Kopp and Gillberg, 2011).
Overall, the 21 articles reviewed suggest no difference in social interaction between males and females with ASD and inconsistent differences in social communication between males and females with ASD, although both social interaction and social communication may be influenced by intellectual ability and age.
Restricted, Repetitive Patterns of Behavior, Interests, or Activities
There were 18 articles reviewed on restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests (RRBI) published between 1993 and 2013: nine cross-sectional studies, seven case–control studies, one cohort study, and one surveillance study. Eleven studies were conducted in the United States and seven studies were conducted in other countries. Based on this review, the literature suggests that males with ASD have more RRBI than females with ASD (Hattier et al., 2011; Carter et al., 2007). When assessing individual facets of RRBI, restricted interests are seen more often in males with ASD than females with ASD independent of cognitive ability (Kohane et al., 2012; May et al., 2012; Mandy et al., 2012; Szatmari et al., 2012). Males with ASD are also more likely to have more routines, rituals, and fascination with parts of objects than females with ASD (Nicholas et al., 2008; Park, et al., 2012b; Beuker et al., 2013). The literature on repetitive motor movements is less consistent: adult males with high functioning autism or Asperger’s syndrome had more repetitive motor movements than adult females with high functioning autism or Asperger’s syndrome in one case-control study (May et al., 2012), but there were no sex differences in repetitive motor movements among persons with autism in two other case-control studies (McLennan et al., 1993; Worley and Matson, 2011), one cross-sectional study (Auyeung et al., 2009), and one population-based cross-sectional study (Nicholas et al., 2008).
Age may influence the presentation of RRBI in males and females with ASD. One study found no sex difference among RRBI in toddlers (Sipes et al., 2011), whereas a different study found significantly more RRBI among adult males with ASD compared to females with ASD (Hattier et al., 2011). In summation, most studies reviewed suggested that males with ASD are likely to have more RRBI than females with ASD across levels of cognitive ability, although RRBI may be influenced by age.
Sensory issues are prevalent among persons with ASD (Nicholas et al., 2008) and are included as a RRBI in the DSM 5 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Common issues are oversensitivity to touch, sound, smell, taste, and attraction to certain tactile stimuli (American Psychiatric Association, 2013; Baranek et al., 2006; Rogers et al., 2003). Abnormal sensory reactions have been reported to occur in up to 47 % of persons with ASD, which is a rate ten times higher than reported in the general population (Nicholas et al., 2008). Additionally, there is a significant correlation between sensory issues in each of the individual senses (Kern et al., 2007); therefore, impairment is compounded for persons with ASD and sensory abnormalities.
Cross-sectional studies found no observed differences between males and females in sensitivity to sound (Mandy et al., 2012) or sensory sensitivity in general (Louisa et al., 2012; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Baranek et al., 2006). Mandy et al. (2012) examined RRBI in children and adolescents 3 to 18 years of age and found that age did not influence the presentation of RRBI. However, Lai et al. (2011) found that adult females with high functioning autism had more lifetime sensory issues than males with ASD. Overall, the majority of articles reviewed that addressed sensory issues in ASD do not suggest a sex difference, although aging may be a factor and should be further explored.
Developmental Domain: other Developmental Endophenotypes
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and corresponding symptoms are common in children with ASD (Bradley and Isaacs, 2006; Nicholas et al., 2008). Previous studies show that 50 % to 83 % of children and teenagers with ASD had hyperactivity and attention problems (Nicholas et al., 2008; Bradley and Isaacs, 2006). There were seven articles that met search criteria and addressed ADHD. These seven articles were published between 2008 and 2012 with five cross-sectional studies and two cohort studies. Two studies were conducted in the United States and five were conducted in other countries.
A study of 7 to 12 year-olds with varying cognitive abilities found that males with ASD had higher levels of hyperactivity and impulsivity than females with ASD and this difference was more pronounced at younger ages (May et al., 2012). Males with high functioning autism from middle childhood to adolescence had higher levels of hyper-activity and inattention in teacher reports as compared to female peers, but there was no difference in parental reports (Mandy et al., 2012). A study of children and young adults aged 5 to 20 with high functioning autism found females had more attention problems (Bryson et al., 2008). A majority of studies found no difference in ADHD co-occurrence between males and females with ASD (Simonoff et al., 2008; Sinzig et al., 2009; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Horovitz et al., 2011). In summary, the current literature leans toward no sex differences in the co-occurrence of ADHD and ASD, but there is still inconsistency in the literature and thus, the sex difference is largely inconclusive
Challenging Behavior (Aggressiveness/Temper Tantrums/Oppositional Tendencies)
Challenging behavior is a common associated feature of ASD and includes aggression expressed toward other people, temper tantrums, and oppositional and defiant tendencies. Aggression expressed toward other people and temper tantrums are found in 50 % and 54 % of children with ASD compared to only 28 % and 23 % of children without ASD (Nicholas et al., 2008). The 12 articles in this review that met search criteria and addressed challenging behaviors were published between 2005 and 2012 and included six cross-sectional studies, four case–control studies, one clinical trial, and one surveillance study. Six studies were conducted in the United States and six were conducted in other countries. In general, there were no differences in aggression, temper tantrums, or anger between child sexes, regardless of age or cognitive ability (Kozlowski et al., 2012; Worley and Matson, 2011; Carter et al., 2007; Murphy et al., 2009; Mandy et al., 2012; Quek et al., 2012; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Horovitz et al., 2011). One study found that females with ASD had more “challenging behaviors” than males with ASD, although challenging behaviors were not explicitly defined (Dworzynski et al., 2012). Delinquent behavior (Park et al., 2012b) and oppositional defiance (Gadow et al., 2005) were more prevalent in males than in females with ASD in two studies reviewed.
Cognitive Skills and Intellectual Disability
In a review from 1966 to 2001, Fombonne (2003) found that the median prevalence of intellectual impairment in persons with ASD was 70 % in the studies evaluated. More recent population-based studies have found lower rates of ID in persons with ASD, with a range from 18 % to 55 % (Charman et al., 2011). The National Health Interview Study found 0.71 % of all children aged 3 to 17 from 1998 to 2007 had an ID (Boyle et al., 2011). Our review found 12 articles that met the search criteria and addressed ID or specific cognitive skills. These 12 articles were published between 1983 and 2011, and included seven cross-sectional studies, four case–control studies, and one-surveillance study. Four studies were conducted in the United States and eight were conducted in other countries.
The 12 articles reviewed support a relationship between child sex and co-occurring ID in children with ASD. The sex ratio between males and females without ID is greater than the sex ratio for all levels of cognitive ability combined (Nicholas et al., 2008; Hartley and Sikora, 2009). Consequently, the male to female ratio is lower when there is co-occurring ID compared to when there is no co-occurring ID (Hartley and Sikora, 2009; Nicholas et al., 2008; Yeargin-Allsopp et al., 2003). The ratio of males to females with ASD and co-occurring ID has been seen to range from 1.3:1 (Tsai and Beisler, 1983) to 2.8:1 (Bryson et al., 2008) with a trend toward fewer sex differences as ID becomes more severe (Yeargin-Allsopp et al., 2003). This differential sex difference in ID results in females with ASD, on average, having lower intelligence test scores than males with ASD (Banach et al., 2009; Volkmar et al., 1993).
Specific cognitive skills posited to vary between males and females with ASD include cognitive flexibility, response inhibition, working memory, and attention to detail (Geurts et al., 2004). Female adolescents with high functioning autism were seen to have superior information processing, multiple conceptual tracking, divided attention, and cognitive flexibility compared to male adolescents with high functioning autism (Bolte et al., 2011). In contrast, studies show males with ASD have superior attention to detail, visuo-spatial skills (Auyeung et al., 2009), and inhibitory control (Lemon et al., 2011) compared to females with ASD. There were no sex differences between adults with ASD in the “eyes test” which measures ability to infer mental states through the eyes (Lai et al., 2011). In summary, the 12 journal articles reviewed in this section suggest that females with ASD generally have lower intelligence test scores than males with ASD and that specific cognitive skills may vary by sex.
Developmental Regression
Parents of some children with ASD report a period of typical development followed by a loss in language, social, motor, self-help, imaginative play, or other skills. This developmental regression is usually reported to occur between 15 and 24 months of age (Meilleur and Fombonne, 2009). Our review found six articles that met search criteria and addressed developmental regression. These six articles were published between 2007 and 2013 and comprised two cohort studies, three cross-sectional studies, and one surveillance study. In a population-based surveillance study of children with ASD, 17 % of children had documented developmental regression and that percentage rose if the child had a previous ASD diagnosis (Wiggins et al., 2009). Males had significantly more regression than females and were more likely to regress at a younger age (Wiggins et al., 2009). This higher risk of regression in males was also seen in smaller, non-population based studies (n=4, 8, and 17 female children) (Bernabei et al., 2007; Ekinci et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2012). In contrast, a cross-sectional study found that females aged 18 months to 15 years had significantly higher occurrence of regression as compared to males (30 % vs. 19 %) (Ben-Itzchak et al., 2013). No difference in the presence of developmental regression between males and females with ASD was observed in a small clinical sample of 20 females (Meilleur and Fombonne, 2009). In sum, the review of sex differences of developmental regression is contradictory and thus inconclusive.
Excess/Absence of Fear
Excess or absence of fear is more common in children with ASD than other children (Evans et al. 2005; Nicholas et al., 2008). In a population-based surveillance of eight-year olds, Nicholas et al. (2008) found that 32 % of children with ASD had atypical fear noted in service records compared to 6 % of children with ASD symptoms but no ASD diagnosis. Three articles met search criteria and addressed excess or absence of fear. All three of these articles were published in the United States between 1990 and 2011 and were two cross-sectional studies and one case–control study. In these studies, females with ASD had more specific phobias than males with ASD (Gadow and DeVincent, 2012; Matson and Love, 1990) and more unusual fears (Mayes et al., 2013). One study conducted by Matson and Love (1990) found more fear in typically developing female children compared to male children and no significant difference in fear between typically developing female children and female children with ASD. Given the sparse amount of research on this topic, further exploration is warranted to understand sex differences in fear among persons with ASD.
Safety Issues (Self-Injury/Elopement)
About 50 % of children with ASD engage in self-injurious behavior (Richards et al., 2012; Baghdadli et al., 2003; Duerden et al., 2012). Four studies met search criteria and three pertained to self-injurious behavior. All three of these studies were cross-sectional designs with two being conducted in Europe and one in the United States. No difference in self-injurious behavior was found between males and females with ASD (Richards et al., 2012; Baghdadli et al., 2003; Duerden et al., 2012).
Elopement, also known as wandering off, is a rising concern among parents of children with ASD. One online survey addressing elopement met our search criteria. This survey was conducted in the United States in 2013 and found that 49 % of parents reported that their child with an ASD wandered off at least once after the age of four years (Anderson et al., 2012). Results also found that sex did not influence the prevalence of elopement, although children with more intellectual impairment were more likely to elope (Anderson et al., 2012). Few conclusions can be drawn since there is little research on elopement and other safety issues in children with ASD and associated sex differences.
Psychiatric Domain
Anxiety/Mood Disorders
Symptoms of anxiety and mood disorders are more prevalent in children with ASD than in typically developing children (Worley and Matson, 2011; Nicholas et al., 2008). Among children who met a surveillance definition for an ASD, 55 % had abnormal mood or affect compared to 26 % of children with at least one symptom of an ASD but no ASD diagnosis (Schendel et al., 2009). The Special Needs Autism Project in the UK found 44 cases of emotional disorder per 100 children with ASD (Simonoff et al., 2008). Moreover, among eight-year-old children who met a surveillance definition for an ASD, 3 % had anxiety, 2 % had emotional disorder, 2 % had mood disorder, and less than 2 % had obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), depression, bipolar, or oppositional defiant disorder (Levy et al., 2010). Nine studies were found that met search criteria and addressed anxiety or mood disorders. These nine studies were published between 2005 and 2012 and included five cross-sectional studies and four case–control studies. Four of the studies were conducted in the United States and five were conducted in other countries.
The literature on sex differences in co-occurring anxiety or mood disorders and ASD is mixed and dependent on cognitive abilities. In some studies, females with high functioning autism were at greater risk for internalizing psychopathology than both male children with ASD and typically developing female children (Solomon et al., 2012; Mandy et al., 2012). These studies are supported by a Finnish report that found female children with ASD had lower scores on a test associated with major depressive disorder compared to male children with ASD (Mattila et al., 2010). Other studies found no sex differences in the of co-occurrence of anxiety or depression in children with ASD and varying cognitive abilities (Quek et al., 2012; Gadow et al., 2005; Park et al., 2012b; Simonoff et al., 2008; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Lai et al., 2011). In the general population, females have more panic attacks, generalized anxiety disorders and males have more social anxiety (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Based on this review, the current literature is inconclusive on whether a sex difference in children with ASD and co-occurring anxiety or mood disorders exists, although a few studies suggest more anxiety and mood disorders in females than males with ASD.
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that involves delusions, disorganized behavior, disorganized speech, hallucinations, and restrictions in the range and intensity of emotions (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Schizophrenia typically presents between 18 and 30 years of age with earlier onset associated with male sex. Lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia is near 0.2 % (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) The prevalence of schizophrenia in eight-year olds with ASD is less than 1 % (Levy et al., 2010). Two articles met search criteria and addressed schizophrenia. These two articles were published in 2005 and 2010 and were both case–control studies. Review of the two studies found conflicting results on sex differences and the co-occurrence of ASD and schizophrenia or schizophrenia spectrum traits. A parental survey of 6 to 12 year olds with ASD found schizophrenia spectrum traits to be twice as prevalent in females compared to males (57 %: 28 %) independent of ID (Gadow and DeVincent, 2012). Conversely, in a group of 6 to 12 year olds with ASD and ID, schizophrenia was more common in males than females (Tsakanikos et al., 2011). Again, the literature is relatively sparse due to the late onset of schizophrenia and the rarity of co-occurring schizophrenia: future research is warranted.
Medical Domain
Birth defects/Chromosomal Disorders /Genetic Disorders
Population-based surveillance data from the 2008 ADDM report found that among children with ASD, less than 1 % had a co-occurrence of fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, chromosomal disorders, or other genetic and congenital diagnoses (Levy et al., 2010). It is likely that these rates are under-reported because investigation of ASD co-occurring conditions was not the focus of the ADDM surveillance effort. However, a cohort study of children in Georgia found a similar prevalence of chromosomal disorders and Down syndrome in persons with ASD (Schendel et al., 2009).
There were four studies reviewed that met search criteria and addressed ASD sex differences in birth defects, chromosomal disorders, and genetic disorders: two systematic reviews, one case–control study, and one surveillance study. Co-occurring birth defects, such as impairments to the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, genitourinary system, or musculoskeletal system, appear more often in males than females with ASD. Among children with ASD, the male to female ratio was 9:1 if a child had a co-occurring birth defect and 3.6:1 if the child did not have a co-occurring birth defect (Schendel et al., 2009).
A review conducted by Reilly (2009) found that males with ASD have more co-occurring Down syndrome than females with ASD and the male to female ratio among children with both ASD and Down syndrome may be near the overall ASD prevalence ratio of 4:1. A review conducted by Wiznitzer (2004) found no difference between males and females with ASD and the co-occurrence of tuberous sclerosis. Clifford et al. (2007) found that about 70 % of males aged 5 to 80 with fragile X syndrome had co-occurring ASD while 23 % of females in the same age range with fragile X had co-occurring ASD. The difference in co-occurrence of ASD between males and females may suggest a greater association between the two conditions in males as compared to females.
It is important to note that birth defects, chromosomal disorders, and genetic disorders are rare and seldom studied. Therefore, the results on sex differences for co-occurring ASD and chromosomal and genetic conditions are inconclusive.
Head Size / Encephalopathy
Head size, specifically an enlarged head circumference or macrocephaly, has been associated with ASD (Wallace and Treffert, 2004). Three articles were reviewed that examined differences in head size between males and females with ASD. Studies include two case–control studies and one cross-sectional study. Two studies were conducted in the US and one study was conducted in Italy. A cross-sectional study by Fombonne et al. (1999) found no difference in head size between males and females aged 2 to 16 with ASD. Sacco et al. (2007) also found no difference in head size between males and females aged 3 to 16 with ASD. In contrast, Aylward et al. (2002) found larger head sizes in male adults and children compared to female adults and children with ASD, but the female sample size was low (n=9).
Abnormal Eating and Gastrointestinal Issues
In a population-based study conducted by Nicholas et al. (2008), about 54 % of children with ASD had an abnormality in eating, drinking, or sleeping, which is nearly 40 % higher than that of children with at least one symptom of ASD but no diagnosis (Nicholas et al., 2008). Some studies have shown an increase in certain gastrointestinal symptoms among persons with ASD, including constipation (Ibrahim et al., 2009) and diarrhea (Wang et al., 2006), while other studies found no significant increase in overall gastrointestinal symptoms or symptoms such as esophageal reflux, vomiting, and abdominal discomfort (Ibrahim et al., 2009; Wang et al., 2006; Valicenti-McDermott et al., 2007). However, little research on gastrointestinal issues has been conducted at a population level and no studies were found that compared males to females on gastrointestinal response. More research is needed to determine if there is an association between gastrointestinal symptoms and ASD and whether the association differs between the sexes.
Four studies were found that compared the sexes and addressed food selectivity. These four studies were conducted in the United States between 2006 and 2010 and included one case–control and three cross-sectional designs. In general, review of these studies found food selectivity and feeding issues to be more frequent in children with ASD than children without ASD (Valicenti-McDermott et al., 2007; Ibrahim et al., 2009), although limited research is available in this area. There was no difference between child sexes in over or under-eating in a study of children with high functioning autism (Worley and Matson, 2011) and no differences between the sexes in eating abnormalities in two studies conducted in children with ASD and varying cognitive abilities (Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Horovitz et al., 2011). Based on this limited review, it appears unlikely that there is a difference in eating habits between males and females with ASD.
Seizures/ Epilepsy
Epilepsy and other seizure disorders co-occur in 5 % to 40 % of children with ASD and there is differential prevalence based on ID (Baird et al., 2008; Nicholas et al., 2008). This review found three articles that met search criteria and addressed seizures or epilepsy. These three articles were published between 2008 and 2013 and consist of a cohort study, one cross-sectional study, and one meta-analysis. Females with ASD were found to have more epilepsy than males with ASD; the male to female ratio drops to near 2:1 in children with ASD and co-occurring epilepsy, but this may be partly due to differential ID (Amiet et al., 2008; Bolton et al., 2011; Ben-Itzchak et al., 2013). There may be an increased likeliness in females with ASD to have co-occurring epilepsy or seizure disorder; however, the literature is sparse so a conclusion cannot be drawn. Further research is needed to enhance current knowledge of sex differences in children with ASD and epilepsy or seizure disorder.
Sleep Disturbances
In a systematic review of parental sleep surveys, sleep problems were present in 50 % to 80 % of children with ASD compared to 9 % to 50 % in matched typically developing children (Kotagal and Broomall, 2012). There were six articles reviewed that met search criteria and addressed sleep disturbances. These six articles were published between 2004 and 2012 and included two case–control studies, two cohort studies, and two cross-sectional studies. Four were conducted in the United States and three were conducted in other countries. Based on this review, some studies found no sex differences in sleep problems among persons with ASD (Liu et al., 2006; Wiggs and Stores, 2004; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Horovitz et al., 2011), one study found that female children with ASD have less sleep problems than male children with ASD (Sivertsen et al., 2012), and one study found female children with ASD have more sleep problems than male children with ASD (Hartley and Sikora, 2009). The minimal amount of research in this area leads to inconsistent results and prevents definitive conclusions on whether a sex difference exists in sleep disturbance.