Vaccine News – Study – INFANTS RECEIVING MERCURY-CONTAINING VACCINES DEVELOPED SPEECH DISORDERS, SLEEP DISORDERS, AND AUTISM, ACCORDING TO CDC SCIENTISTS

Dr. Andrew Moulden: Every Vaccine Produces Harm
by John P. Thomas
Health Impact News
Canadian physician Dr. Andrew Moulden provided clear scientific evidence to prove that every dose of vaccine given to a child or an adult produces harm. The truth that he uncovered was rejected by the conventional medical system and the pharmaceutical industry. Nevertheless, his warning and his message to America remains as a solid legacy of the man who stood up against big pharma and their program to vaccinate every person on the Earth.
Dr Moulden died unexpectedly in November of 2013 at age 49.
Because of the strong opposition from big pharma concerning Dr. Moulden’s research, I became concerned that the name of this brilliant researcher and his life’s work had nearly been deleted from the internet. His reputation was being disparaged, and his message of warning and hope was being distorted and buried without a tombstone.
I prepared a series of articles as a tribute to a great physician and as a memorial to a courageous individual who was not afraid to speak the truth about medical corruption and a flawed healthcare system that does more to harm health than it does to cure disease.
This is the first in a series of four articles about Dr. Moulden — the man, the physician, and the powerful advocate for ending all vaccine use. In future articles, I will summarize his detailed scientific evidence, which shows how vaccine damage occurs. I will explain the common mechanisms behind vaccine damage and how vaccines harm the health of everyone who receives them regardless of whether or not they notice any adverse reactions at the time they take the shots.
Dr. Moulden stated:
What we have done to each other [with vaccines] has produced the most profound damage to humankind by humankind in the history of humanity. And the reason why we got here is partly because of:
Our arrogance in thinking that we know everything. In physiology and medicine we do not know everything!
[Our greed] to advance our own self-interest to make money, to sell products and to advance corporate alliances. Commercialization has overtaken the fundamental human value of “do unto others as you would have others do unto you.” When society turns toward this human value, then we would all be working together for the greater good of each other. [However, other values have become more important] I don’t care whose feet I step on or how I get there as long as my American dream is realized. I don’t care who has to pay for it on the way of getting there. [1]
Dr. Moulden’s Credibility
Was Dr. Moulden a crackpot as some sources claim, or was he a brilliant physician and researcher? This series of articles will set the record straight, and summarize the contribution that his work has made to medical knowledge.
When I evaluate the credibility of people who are unknown to me, I begin by seeking answers to a few basic questions. For example: Is this person offering opinion, or can he or she back up the claims with valid science? Does he have educational credentials? Are there other physicians and scientists who support his or her beliefs and recommendations? Is this person controlled by the pharmaceutical industry, allopathic medical associations, or the US FDA (US Food and Drug Administration)? And finally, what do Quackwatch and their friends have to say about the person?
Dr. Moulden had a PhD in Clinical Psychology and Neuropsychology. He had a master’s degree in child development, and was also a medical doctor. [2] His work was respected by other researchers who don’t march to the drumbeat of the pharmaceutical companies. Dr. Moulden was a threat to the pharmaceutical industry, and their Quackwatch family of 21 related websites treated him as an enemy. [3, 4]

Vaccine Contraindications: Six People Who Should Not Be Vaccinated
The debate surrounding vaccinations is a fierce one, and personally, I don’t like to argue about it. I’m happy to make the right choices for my family while you make the right ones for yours. (I personally have suffered adverse reactions to vaccinations.) It’s ok to have different opinions, really it is. But there are a lot of folks out there who think everyone should be vaccinated, period, and those who choose not to vaccinate should be penalized or worse.
Listen. I get that people are scared and there’s a lot of fear-mongering in the media. But let’s be realistic here: vaccinations are a medical procedure. There are risks. Vaccinations are not right for everyone. There are at least six types of people in particular who should avoid vaccinations, and below, I’ll spell it out.
Vaccine Contraindications
Just like a particular surgery or prescription medication won’t work well for everyone, vaccinations are not a good choice for everyone.
Some people, in particular, are much more likely to have adverse reactions to vaccinations, including:

– Those with an autoimmune disease
– Children born to a mother with an autoimmune disease
– Anyone who is sick
– Pregnant women
– Those who have previously had a reaction to a vaccination

One size does not fit all
Clearly, vaccinations are not the right choice for everyone, and each family should decide what is right for them and their children. When parents are aware of vaccine contraindications, they can make informed and safer choices for their children.
Please share this post so that other parents can learn about vaccine contraindications and decide if vaccination is right for their children.

USA: Highest Vaccination Rate in the World Has the Worst Health
by PAUL FASSA
That “worst health” label includes a ranking of 34th in the world with infant mortality. In other words, the USA has the 34th worst infant survival with its highest rate of vaccinations. Some are directly from multiple vaccinations administered.
But the USA leads the world in infant vaccinations, those administered during the first year after their births – 26 vaccinations during that time.
The only vaccination I recall receiving during early childhood, circa 1948, was the smallpox vaccine, the one that left a circle of shallow pockmarks on the upper arm, a non-ink tattoo that proved you had received that vaccine. Months later there was the booster shot which gave me a vacation of several days away from my first grade teacher while sitting out the chicken pox.
During Naval training the mass vaccination high pressure hand held gun that replaced syringes and needles was tried on us with the polio shot. I wound up with a vacation in the base infirmary with an extended period of the flu. Between those two, there may have been a tetanus shot or two.
From the Healthy Home Economist:

-In1950, there were 3 childhood vaccines typically given when a child entered school.
-In 1983, there were 10 recommended vaccines by the age of 6 years old (24 doses, 7 injections, 4 oral doses for polio).
-In 2010, the CDC vax schedule totaled 68 doses with more than half given by the time a child was only a year and a half old.
-In 2016, the schedule has increased to 74 doses by age 17 with 53 injections and 3 oral doses of rotavirus.

The number of vaccines included in the current childhood vaccine schedule has quadrupled over the past 60 years, with several demanding multiple injections and boosters. During this exponential rise of CDC “recommended” schedules, the health of American children has plummeted.
Autoimmune diseases, learning disabilities, food allergies, chronic ailments, and childhood obesity have all risen. The overall health of this nation ranks very low compared to all other industrialized nations, dead last in most areas.
Vaccine false dogma is so heavy hardly anyone with authority, even in mainstream media, makes the connection between poor health with high vaccination rates. Instead, more, three added for 2016, are getting enforced by mandate or coerced by pediatricians who have the right to refuse medical care on kids who aren’t vaccinated.
Destroying Health with Vaccines is Good Business

50 Studies the AAP Avoided to Mention
There is a robust, worldwide body of published science from highly esteemed scientists questioning the safety of many different aspects of vaccines-how come we never hear from them? The majority of the most compelling science has been published since 2010. Below find 50 such studies to consider, sorted chronologically, and note that these studies only represent a portion of the published work implicating vaccinations in a wide variety of negative health outcomes.
The American Academy of Pediatrics made representations to President Trump in a letter dated 2/7/2017 that are utterly indefensible and inaccurate, as any rational review of the studies below quickly demonstrates. For example, the AAP wrote:
“Claims that vaccines are unsafe when administered according to expert recommendations have been disproven by a robust body of medical literature…we write to express our unequivocal support for the safety of vaccines.”
We contend that the AAP’s statements to the President are baseless, reckless, and easily refuted. The AAP’s letter alone supports the President’s desire to field a Vaccine Safety Commission and do all we can to make vaccines as safe as possible. Please click here for a list of all 50 studies detailed below.

2017
Temporal Association of Certain Neuropsychiatric Disorders Following Vaccination of Children and Adolescents A Pilot Case–Control Study
New Quality-Control Investigations on Vaccines Micro-and Nanocontamination
2016
Behavioral abnormalities in female mice following administration of aluminum adjuvants and the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Gardasil
Autoimmune/Inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants and Sjogren’s Syndrome
Combining Childhood Vaccines at One Visit Is Not Safe
Aluminum in Childhood Vaccines Is Unsafe
Aluminium in brain tissue in familial Alzheimer’s disease
2015
Evidence that Food Proteins in Vaccines Cause the Development of Food Allergies and Its Implications for Vaccine Policy
2014
Transcriptomic Analyses of Neurotoxic Effects in Mouse Brain After Intermittent Neonatal Administration of Thimerosal
A Dose-Response Relationship between Organic Mercury Exposure from Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines and Neurodevelopmental Disorders
A comparison of temporal trends in United States autism prevalence to trends in suspected environmental factors
2013
A Population-Based Cohort Study of Undervaccination in 8 Managed Care Organizations Across the United States
Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) 2013: Unveiling the pathogenic, clinical and diagnostic aspects
Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity in humans and animals, vaccine adjuvants, and autoimmunity
Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (Shoenfeld’s syndrome): clinical and immunological spectrum
A two-phase study evaluating the relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccine administration and the risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in the United States
Human exposure to aluminium
Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine and Primary Ovarian Failure: Another Facet of the Autoimmune/Inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants
2012
Risk of Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy After Vaccination With Diphtheria, Tetanus, Acellular Pertussis, Inactivated Poliovirus, and Haemophilus Influenzae Type b
Mechanisms of aluminum adjuvant toxicity and autoimmunity in pediatric populations
Neurologic adverse events following vaccination
The spectrum of ASIA: ‘Autoimmune (Auto-inflammatory) Syndrome induced by Adjuvants’
Relative trends in hospitalizations and mortality among infants by the number of vaccine doses and age, based on the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1990-2010
2011
Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism?
Maternal Thimerosal Exposure Results in Aberrant Cerebellar Oxidative Stress, Thyroid Hormone Metabolism, and Motor Behavior in Rat Pups; Sex- and Strain-Dependent Effects
2010
Interindividual variations in the efficacy and toxicity of vaccines
Sorting out the spinning of autism: heavy metals and the question of incidence
Influence of pediatric vaccines on amygdala growth and opioid ligand binding in rhesus macaque infants: A pilot study
The immunobiology of aluminium adjuvants: how do they really work?
Hepatitis B Vaccination of Male Neonates and Autism Diagnosis, NHIS 1997-2002
2009
Allergic Disease and Atopic Sensitization in Children in Relation to Measles Vaccination and Measles Infection
Long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminum hydroxide is associated with chronic cognitive dysfunction
Delayed acquisition of neonatal reflexes in newborn primates receiving a thimerosal-containing Hepatitis B vaccine: Influence of gestational age and birth weight
Aluminum hydroxide injections lead to motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration
2008
Post-vaccination encephalomyelitis: Literature review and illustrative case
Thimerosal exposure in infants and neurodevelopmental disorders: An assessment of computerized medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink
Delay in diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus vaccination is associated with a reduced risk of childhood asthma?
Hepatitis B triple series vaccine and developmental disability in US children aged 1-9 years
2005
THE MERCURY USED AS A VACCINE PRESERVATIVE IS FAR MORE NEUROTOXIC THAN THE MERCURY FOUND IN FISH
Comparison of Blood and Brain Mercury Levels in Infant Monkeys Exposed to Methylmercury or Vaccines Containing Thimerosal
Thimerosal Neurotoxicity is Associated with Glutathione Depletion: Protection with Glutathione Precursors
2004
Activation of methionine synthase by insulin-like growth factor-1 and dopamine: a target for neurodevelopmental toxins and thimerosal
2002
UTAH STATE SCIENTISTS FIND AUTOIMMUNE REACTION TO MMR IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM, INCLUDING AUTOIMMUNITY TO MYELIN BASIC PROTEIN, A BRAIN BUILDING-BLOCK
Abnormal Measles-Mumps-Rubella Antibodies and CNS Autoimmunity in Children with Autism
2001
Macrophagic myofasciitis lesions assess long-term persistence of vaccine derived aluminum hydroxide in muscle
2000
JAPANESE SCIENTISTS FIND VACCINE-STRAIN OF MEASLES IN THE GUTS OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM
Detection and Sequencing of Measles Virus from Peripheral Mononuclear Cells from Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Autism
CDC SCIENTISTS ADMIT THAT 90% OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE MORTALITY DECREASE IN THE UNITED STATES HAPPENED BEFORE VACCINES WERE AVAILABLE
Annual Summary of Vital Statistics: Trends in the Health of Americans During the 20th Century
Iatrogenic exposure to mercury after hepatitis B vaccination in preterm infants
Effects of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis or Tetanus Vaccination on Allergies and Allergy-Related Respiratory Symptoms Among Children and Adolescents in the United States
1999
INFANTS RECEIVING MERCURY-CONTAINING VACCINES DEVELOPED SPEECH DISORDERS, SLEEP DISORDERS, AND AUTISM, ACCORDING TO CDC SCIENTISTS
Increased risk of developmental neurologic impairment after high exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccine in first month of life
INFECTIOUS DISEASE RATES DECLINED PRECIPITOUSLY IN THE UNITED STATES IN THE 20TH CENTURY BEFORE THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A NATIONAL VACCINE PROGRAM
Trends in Infectious Disease Mortality in the United States During the 20th Century
CDC SCIENTISTS FIND CHILDREN GIVEN THE MMR VACCINE SHED THE MEASLES VIRUS FOR AT LEAST 2 WEEKS AFTER GETTING THE VACCINE, MAKING THEM VECTORS TO SPREAD MEASLES
Detection of Measles Virus RNA in Urine Specimens from Vaccine Recipients

Health News – Leading Physician Confirms Unborn Children Feel Excruciating Pain During Abortions

Leading Physician Confirms Unborn Children Feel Excruciating Pain During Abortions
National   Charlotte Lozier Institute   Feb 24, 2017
Sheila Page, D.O., is board certified in Neuromusculoskeletal Medicine and Osteopathic Manipulative Therapy. She treats a wide spectrum of patients from the newborn to the elderly, including patients with irreversible and terminal illness. Dr. Page (pictured right) has a special interest in children with disabilities, particularly those whose burden of care is difficult and who have been given little hope for a better quality of life. Dr. Page is one of our nearly 40 associate scholars. In this interview, she discusses palliative care and the science of fetal pain.
In your practice of medicine, you have worked with patients of various ages who are experiencing pain and who in some cases have serious, irreversible medical conditions. How do you seek to improve quality of life for these patients, and does your approach to treating your young patients differ from those who are older?
Page: Over the past 23 years, I have seen a broad spectrum of patients, including those who have either acute pain or breakthrough pain in chronic or terminal conditions. My goal is to help the patient to become pain-free or to improve their quality of life. Using osteopathic manipulative treatment, I try to increase mobility, decrease pain, and improve functions such as breathing, especially when the patient suffers from lung congestion or chest wall pain with breathing.
Using osteopathic manipulative medicine, I balance tensions in the fascial and tendinous elements of the body, relieving strains and congestion. The way I treat healthier adults is different than my approach to very frail patients, or children and infants. Sometimes, in order to resolve the problem, I have to directly touch painful areas, initially causing some pain. That discomfort usually resolves with successful treatment and the patient immediately feels relief. With children, I have to be very gentle and patient. They often are already in pain and at first are pretty upset about my treatment. Once they feel relief, however, they understand and are usually eager to be treated.

HORROR: Images Of Alleged “Organ Farm” In Malaysia-Thailand Border Shocks Social Media
By thecinnaboy Posted on November 30, 2016
Disturbing images of dead children, allegedly killed by “organ farmers” in the Malaysia-Thailand border went viral online, warning parents never to let their children off their sight lest their young fall victim to these syndicates too.
The images, shared by Facebook user Goh Soo Heng, said that over 700 dead bodies of children were found with their organs being emptied. The images showed children lined up like livestock with cut marks all over them, some being tied up or ‘packed’ into cardboard boxes. The gruesome images suggest these are the work of organ farming syndicates, looking to kidnap children in order to harvest their organs for sale in the black market.
The Coverage are unable to verify the claims nor the origins of these images.

German police: It’s an Arab rape game called Taharrush, and now it has come to Europe
Note: The following video apparently is not visible in Cologne, Berlin, Frankfurt, Stockholm, Malmö, and several other European cities where they seem to have completely missed it and thus are shocked to the core.

Lara Logan tells the American documentary program “60 Minutes” about the 20 minutes she was in hell and when she though she was going to die.
It happened suddenly. The Arab Taharrush rape game was in motion, and again she was in the spotlight, only this time the cameras were handheld cell phones and she was about to be gang raped.
Watch her tell about it herself.

900 children at risk after possible faulty vaccines in Ocean County

900 children at risk after possible faulty vaccines in Ocean County
About 900 children may have received ineffective vaccines for chickenpox, rubella, mumps, measles and other diseases through a free or low-cost vaccine program in Ocean County and may need to be revaccinated.
The state Department of Health issued a warning Monday that vaccines given to children at Southern Ocean Pediatrics and Family Medicine in Manahawkin were not stored properly at the right temperatures, which possibly reduced their effectiveness.
Children at risk were vaccinated at the Manahawkin provider through the Vaccines for Children, a federally funded, state-operated program that provides 1.6 million free or low-cost vaccines to eligible low-income children in New Jersey.

Vaccine injury testimony
Best live TV interview EVER given by an autism mom–just watch! Drops truth bombs, then leaves studio to head home and care for teenage TWINS with autism, simply incredible– Honey Rinicella!
Listen to the parents. Parents can’t be bought. We tell the truth to honor our children and save the next one.

Vaccine injury testimony

FINALLY,A SERIES THAT ANSWERSTHE REAL QUESTIONSABOUT VACCINES;
THEIR SAFETY, EFFICACY, AND HOW THEY REALLY IMPACT YOUR HEALTH.
This exclusive documentary series is about to be unveiled for FREE viewing on January 10th – 18th.

You can go and register here: http://www.vaccinesrevealed.com/

You’ll discover the most cutting edge news and just released evidence  — from over twenty of the world’s authorities and experts.
YOU WON’T HEAR THIS ANYWHERE ELSE.
You’ll be on the forefront of the latest discoveries and get released evidence from over a dozen of the world’s authorities and experts.
Watch this exclusive release in its entirety – just sign up below today.

World Mercury Project
Flu Shot During Pregnancy & Autism: Cause for Concern. SHARE to help us stop this dangerous practice!

Study: Association Between Influenza Infection and Vaccination During Pregnancy and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Even the CDC has admitted that flu vaccines don’t work
Vaccines are truly one of modern medicine’s biggest farces. The flu vaccine is one of the best examples of this. After all, if the vaccine really worked the way it was supposed to, why would you need to be vaccinated every year? Well, as Mike Adams reports in a Natural News article, the CDC says, “Vaccines wear off.”
Doesn’t that just inspire such confidence? The CDC also tells people that they need to be re-vaccinated each and every year of their lives against the flu because there are so many different strains. Yet, in 2011, people who played along and got their flu shots received the same exact vaccine that was given out in 2010. So, if these vaccines are “so effective,” why did anyone need to be vaccinated again in 2011?
If vaccines work effectively, that would inherently mean that the human recipient now has developed their own antibodies which will protect them against the disease they were vaccinated against. Antibodies last most of your life; that’s why you only got the chicken pox vaccine one time as a child, and not every year. So, what is really going on here with vaccines? Do they work, or don’t they?
As Mike Adams writes:
“They don’t really produce the same quality and strength of antibodies that your own body would produce from a natural infection and recovery.”

Study: Association Between Influenza Infection and Vaccination During Pregnancy and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder
Results  Within this cohort of 196 929 children, influenza was diagnosed in 1400 (0.7%) mothers and 45 231 (23%) received an influenza vaccination during pregnancy. The mean (SD) ages of vaccinated and unvaccinated women were 31.6 (5.2) and 30.4 (5.6) years, respectively. A total number of 3101 (1.6%) children were diagnosed with ASD. After adjusting for covariates, we found that maternal influenza infection (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.68-1.58) or influenza vaccination (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21) anytime during pregnancy was not associated with increased ASD risk. In trimester-specific analyses, first-trimester influenza vaccination was the only period associated with increased ASD risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.04-1.39). However, this association could be due to chance (P = 0.1) if Bonferroni corrected for the multiplicity of hypotheses tested (n = 8). Maternal influenza vaccination in the second or third trimester was not associated with increased ASD risk.

Study: Infants’ exposure to aluminum from vaccines and breast milk during the first 6 months

Study: Infants’ exposure to aluminum from vaccines and breast milk during the first 6 months
Abstract
The success of vaccination programs in reducing and eliminating infectious diseases has contributed to an ever-increasing number of vaccines given at earlier ages (newborns and infants). Exposure to low levels of environmental toxic substances (including metals) at an early age raises plausible concerns over increasingly lower neuro-cognitive rates. Current immunization schedules with vaccines containing aluminum (as adjuvant) are given to infants, but thimerosal (as preservative) is found mostly in vaccines used in non-industrialized countries. Exclusively, breastfed infants (in Brazil) receiving a full recommended schedule of immunizations showed an exceedingly high exposure of Al (225 to 1750 μg per dose) when compared with estimated levels absorbed from breast milk (2.0 μg). This study does not dispute the safety of vaccines but reinforces the need to study long-term effects of early exposure to neuro-toxic substances on the developing brain. Pragmatic vaccine safety needs to embrace conventional toxicology, addressing especial characteristics of unborn fetuses, neonates and infants exposed to low levels of aluminum, and ethylmercury traditionally considered innocuous to the central nervous system.

National Vaccine Information Center (NVIC) Renews Call for End to Product Liability Shield for Vaccine Manufacturers During 2016 Vaccine Awareness Week

National Vaccine Information Center (NVIC) Renews Call for End to Product Liability Shield for Vaccine Manufacturers During 2016 Vaccine Awareness Week
WASHINGTON–(BUSINESS WIRE)–On the 30th Anniversary of the enactment of the National Childhood Injury Act and during the Seventh Annual Vaccine Awareness Week Nov. 13-20, 2016, the non-profit National Vaccine Information Center (NVIC) is renewing its call for an end to the 1986 product liability shield Congress gave vaccine manufacturers for injuries and deaths caused by government licensed and mandated vaccines.
In the 1986 tort reform legislation that created a federal vaccine injury compensation program alternative to product liability and malpractice lawsuits, NVIC co-founders secured vaccine safety informing, recording and reporting provisions that have not been enforced. In 2011, the US Supreme Court banned design defect lawsuits when there was evidence a drug company could have made a vaccine less reactive. Between 2011 and 2016, medical trade associations and special interest groups funded by pharmaceutical companies and government have lobbied state legislatures to remove non-medical and severely restrict medical vaccine exemptions.
“Drug companies should be liable in civil court for vaccine injuries and deaths and so should anyone giving vaccines to people being denied the human right to informed consent to medical risk taking,” said NVIC co-founder and president Barbara Loe Fisher. “There is an urgent need to hold vaccine manufacturers and doctors accountable in civil court for the safety of vaccines and how they are being given.”
The federal vaccine injury compensation program (VICP) has paid $3.5 billion to victims of vaccine injury and death, but two out of three claims are denied. Today, most of the VICP awards go to adults injured by flu vaccine and not to children injured by vaccines required to attend school.

The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986
The law preserved the right for vaccine injured persons to bring a lawsuit in the court system if federal compensation is denied or is not sufficient. By 2012, the U.S. Court of Claims had awarded over $3 billion dollars to vaccine victims for their catastrophic vaccine injuries, although two out of three applicants have been denied compensation. Below are links to the National Vaccine Injury Act of 1986 broken down into specific sections, as listed by the US Government Publishing Office. The law may also be viewed in its entirety on the US House of Representatives Office of the Law and Revision Council here.

Neurological Manifestations of Enterovirus 71 Infection in Children during an Outbreak of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Western Australia

Neurological Manifestations of Enterovirus 71 Infection in Children during an Outbreak of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Western Australia
EV71 is an endemic enterovirus with a worldwide distribution [3, 13] and a propensity to cause epidemics with a high frequency of HFMD and/or neurological disease [2–4, 6]. There is significant variation in the spectrum of neurological disease associated with EV71 epidemics. Certain outbreaks have been associated with a predominance of aseptic meningitis (97%) [8], a high frequency of poliomyelitis-like paralysis (21%) [4, 5, 13], and, more recently, fatal brain-stem encephalitis [12, 14, 15]. Although the clinical presentation of acute neurological disease in the Perth outbreak was similar to that observed in previous epidemics [2–4, 6, 8], immunopathological mechanisms, rather than primary gray matter disease, appeared to be responsible for many cases of neurological disease in our cohort.
The tropism of EV71 for spinal cord and brain-stem gray matter is well established [5, 12, 16]. In our study, patient 9 developed acute cerebellar ataxia and mutism and had changes shown on MRI that were consistent with primary gray matter disease, including the presence of cytotoxic edema in the right cerebellar hemisphere on diffusion-weighted imaging. Cerebellar mutism is a rare, transient syndrome of unknown pathogenesis, most frequently associated with the trauma caused by surgical removal of midline cerebellar tumors [17]. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cerebellar mutism associated with enterovirus infection.