US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – 22 Aug 1994
Study – Failure to reach the goal of measles elimination. Apparent paradox of measles infections in immunized persons.
Poland GA, Jacobson RM.
Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Vaccine Research Group, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN.
Measles is the most transmissible disease known to man. During the 1980s, the number of measles cases in the United States rose dramatically. Surprisingly, 20% to 40% of these cases occurred in persons who had been appropriately immunized against measles. In response, the United States adopted a two-dose universal measles immunization program. We critically examine the effect of vaccine failure in measles occurring in immunized persons.
We performed a computerized bibliographic literature search (National Library of Medicine) for all English-language articles dealing with measles outbreaks. We limited our search to reports of US and Canadian school-based outbreaks of measles, and we spoke with experts to get estimates of vaccine failure rates. In addition, we devised a hypothetical model of a school where measles immunization rates could be varied, vaccine failure rates could be calculated, and the percentage of measles cases occurring in immunized students could be determined.
We found 18 reports of measles outbreaks in very highly immunized school populations where 71% to 99.8% of students were immunized against measles. Despite these high rates of immunization, 30% to 100% (mean, 77%) of all measles cases in these outbreaks occurred in previously immunized students. In our hypothetical school model, after more than 95% of schoolchildren are immunized against measles, the majority of measles cases occur in appropriately immunized children.
The apparent paradox is that as measles immunization rates rise to high levels in a population, measles becomes a disease of immunized persons. Because of the failure rate of the vaccine and the unique transmissibility of the measles virus, the currently available measles vaccine, used in a single-dose strategy, is unlikely to completely eliminate measles. The long-term success of a two-dose strategy to eliminate measles remains to be determined.
Measles among vaccinated Quebec kids questioned
The Canadian Press Posted: Oct 20, 2011
An investigation into an outbreak in a high school in a town that was heavily hit by the virus found that about half of the cases were in teens who had received the recommended two doses of vaccine in childhood — in other words, teens whom authorities would have expected to have been protected from the measles virus.
It’s generally assumed that the measles vaccine, when given in a two-dose schedule in early childhood, should protect against measles infection about 99 per cent of the time. So the discovery that 52 of the 98 teens who caught measles were fully vaccinated came as a shock to the researchers who conducted the investigation.
“That’s the real question. How could that have happened?” said Dr. Gaston De Serres, an infectious diseases expert with Quebec’s public health agency and one of the authors of the study.
In an interview before the start of the conference, De Serres would not name the highly affected town or the high school in it.
But he suggested the discovery that as many of the cases were fully vaccinated as unvaccinated raises a serious question about whether the timing of the delivery of the first dose of measles vaccine is undermining the efficacy of the prevention program.
The vaccine can’t be given earlier, because of a phenomenon that helps babies survive infancy. Children are born without a fully developed immune system — it starts to build as babies become exposed to a variety of disease threats over their first few years.
In pregnancy and after birth, through breastfeeding, babies acquire antibodies from their mothers that tide them over until they can make their own. But that means if they are given the measles vaccine — which is made from weakened live viruses — too early, their mothers’ antibodies will kill the vaccine viruses, preventing protection from being induced.
US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – 2006
Study – Horizontal transmission of the Leningrad-3 live attenuated mumps vaccine virus
Here we describe symptomatic transmission of the Leningrad-3 mumps vaccine virus from healthy vaccinees to previously vaccinated contacts. Throat swab and serum samples were taken from six symptomatic mumps cases and from 13 family contacts. Assessment of serum IgG and IgM anti-mumps virus antibodies and IgG avidity testing was performed using commercial test kits. Sera neutralizing antibodies were measured by plaque reduction neutralization assay using the L-3 vaccine mumps virus as the target. All six of the symptomatic mumps cases and three contact subjects tested positive for mumps by RT-PCR. The genomic sequences tested (F, SH and HN genes) of all nine of these samples were identical to the L-3 mumps vaccine strain. All 13 contacts were asymptomatic; however clear serological evidence of mumps infection was found in some of them. The likely epidemiological source of the transmitted L-3 mumps virus was children who were recently vaccinated at the schools attended by the six symptomatic mumps patients described here. The L-3 mumps vaccine virus can be shed and transmitted horizontally, even to subjects previously vaccinated with the same virus.
US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – 2014
Study – Difficulties in Eliminating Measles and Controlling Rubella and Mumps: A Cross-Sectional Study of a First Measles and Rubella Vaccination and a Second Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccination
Zhifang Wang,1 Rui Yan,1 Hanqing He,1 Qian Li,1 Guohua Chen,2 Shengxu Yang,3 and Enfu Chen1,*
Martyn Kirk, Editor
1 – Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, P. R. China
2 – Cixi City Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Cixi, Ningbo, P. R. China
3 – Sanmen County Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Sanmen, Taizhou, P. R. China
The reported coverage of the measles–rubella (MR) or measles–mumps–rubella (MMR) vaccine is greater than 99.0% in Zhejiang province. However, the incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella remains high. In this study, we assessed MMR seropositivity and disease distribution by age on the basis of the current vaccination program, wherein the first dose of MR is administered at 8 months and the second dose of MMR is administered at 18–24 months.
Cross-sectional serological surveys of MMR antibodies were conducted by collecting epidemiological data in Zhejiang province, China in 2011. In total, 1015 participants were randomly selected from two surveillance sites. Serum MMR-specific immunoglobulin G levels were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The geometric mean titers and seroprevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by age and gender. Proportions of different dose of vaccine by age by vaccine were also identified. Statistically significant differences between categories were assessed by the Chi-square test.
Over 95% seroprevalence rates of measles were seen in all age groups except <7 months infants. Children aged 5–9 years were shown lower seropositivity rates of mumps while elder adolescences and young adults were presented lower rubella seroprevalence. Especially, rubella seropositivity was significantly lower in female adults than in male. Nine measles cases were unvaccinated or unknown vaccination history. Among them, 66.67% (6/9) patients were aged 20–29 years while 33.33% (3/9) were infants aged 8–12 months. In addition, 57.75% (648/1122) patients with mumps were children aged 5–9 years, and 50.54% (94/186) rubella cases were aged 15–39 years.
A timely two-dose MMR vaccination schedule is recommended, with the first dose at 8 months and the second dose at 18–24 months. An MR vaccination speed-up campaign may be necessary for elder adolescents and young adults, particularly young females.
I am injured by the flu shot
MMR vaccine injured me
My family is injured by vaccines
Hep B vaccine and Vit K made my baby sick
I Wish We Would Have KNOWN!
William and Rachael tell their story of their two boys who have suffered from vaccine injury in Ireland.
Interview recorded on May 5th, 2017 in The United Kingdom
I have finally woken up to the truth about vaccines
My 2 children have autism from vaccines
My son should never be vaccinated
Vaccines gave my son autism
My son caught measles from the MMR vaccine
How to accept Jesus Christ as your personal Saviour
Testimony by Phil Robertson from Duck Dynasty
1 Corinthians 15 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand;
2 by which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain.
3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures;
4 and that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:
Hebrews 6 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Therefore leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection; not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of faith toward God,
2 of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment.
3 And this will we do, if God permit.
4 For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost,
5 and have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come,
6 if they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame.
7 For the earth which drinketh in the rain that cometh oft upon it, and bringeth forth herbs meet for them by whom it is dressed, receiveth blessing from God:
8 but that which beareth thorns and briers is rejected, and is nigh unto cursing; whose end is to be burned.