Vaccine News – Study – Gender-selective toxicity of thimerosal

PubMed.gov – Mar.2009
Abstract
A recent report shows a correlation of the historical use of thimerosal in therapeutic immunizations with the subsequent development of autism; however, this association remains controversial. Autism occurs approximately four times more frequently in males compared to females; thus, studies of thimerosal toxicity should take into consideration gender-selective effects. The present study was originally undertaken to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of thimersosal in male and female CD1 mice. However, during the limited MTD studies, it became apparent that thimerosal has a differential MTD that depends on whether the mouse is male or female. At doses of 38.4-76.8mg/kg using 10% DMSO as diluent, seven of seven male mice compared to zero of seven female mice tested succumbed to thimerosal. Although the thimerosal levels used were very high, as we were originally only trying to determine MTD, it was completely unexpected to observe a difference of the MTD between male and female mice. Thus, our studies, although not directly addressing the controversy surrounding thimerosal and autism, and still preliminary due to small numbers of mice examined, provide, nevertheless, the first report of gender-selective toxicity of thimerosal and indicate that any future studies of thimerosal toxicity should take into consideration gender-specific differences.
PubMed.gov – 15.Mar.2010
Abstract
Mercury (Hg) exposure from dental amalgam fillings and thimerosal in vaccines is not a major health hazard, but adverse health effects cannot be ruled out in a small and more susceptible part of the exposed population. Individual differences in toxicokinetics may explain susceptibility to mercury. Inbred, H-2-congenic A.SW and B10.S mice and their F1- and F2-hybrids were given HgCl2 with 2.0 mg Hg/L drinking water and traces of (203)Hg. Whole-body retention (WBR) was monitored until steady state after 5 weeks, when the organ Hg content was assessed. Despite similar Hg intake, A.SW males attained a 20-30% significantly higher WBR and 2- to 5-fold higher total renal Hg retention/concentration than A.SW females and B10.S mice. A selective renal Hg accumulation but of lower magnitude was seen also in B10.S males compared with females. Differences in WBR and organ Hg accumulation are therefore regulated by non-H-2 genes and gender. Lymph nodes lacked the strain- and gender-dependent Hg accumulation profile of kidney, liver and spleen. After 15 days without Hg A.SW mice showed a 4-fold higher WBR and liver Hg concentration, but 11-fold higher renal Hg concentration, showing the key role for the kidneys in explaining the slower Hg elimination in A.SW mice. The trait causing higher mercury accumulation was not dominantly inherited in the F1 hybrids. F2 mice showed a large inter-individual variation in Hg accumulation, showing that multiple genetic factors influence the Hg toxicokinetics in the mouse. The genetically heterogeneous human population may therefore show a large variation in mercury toxicokinetics.
US National Library of Medicine – National Institutes of Health – Feb.2015
Results
Developmental Domain: ASD Diagnostic Criteria
Social Communication/Social Interaction
Deficits in social communication and social interaction are core factors in the diagnostic criteria of ASD. Impairments in social communication may present as abnormalities in eye contact, poor integration of verbal and nonverbal behaviors, and difficulties understanding the nonverbal communication of others (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). In some cases, persons with ASD may not participate in conversation or struggle with pragmatic language (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Impairments in social interaction include difficulties with social-emotional reciprocity, failure to develop peer relationships, and reduced empathetic understanding and/or response (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
There were 21 articles reviewed on social communication and social interaction in persons with ASD published between 1993 and 2013: 13 case-control studies, 7 cross-sectional studies, and 1 surveillance study. Nine studies were conducted in the United States and 12 studies were conducted at outside of the US. Of these 21 articles, 14 address social communication or other language abilities. In samples of children with varying cognitive abilities, some studies showed no significant differences in communication, conversational deficits, and language levels between males and females with ASD (Andersson et al., 2013; Dawson et al., 2007; Nicholas et al., 2008; Pilowsky et al., 1998; Park et al., 2012a, 2012b; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Mandy et al., 2012; Sipes et al., 2011; Solomon et al., 2012; Amr et al., 2011). One study found that males with ASD had greater expressive and receptive language skills than females with ASD (Carter et al., 2007) and another study found that females with ASD had more impaired social communication skills than males with ASD (Hartley and Sikora, 2009). Conversely, Park et al. (2012b) found that females with ASD had stronger non-verbal communication abilities than males with ASD. The majority of the literature reviewed on social communication found no difference between males and females with ASD, but there is some inconsistency.
The literature on sex differences in social interaction among persons with ASD (13 of 21 articles reviewed) is also inconsistent but generally suggests no significant sex differences in social interaction skills (Andersson et al., 2013; Dawson et al., 2007; Nicholas et al., 2008; Pilowsky et al., 1998; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Park et al. 2012b; Mandy et al., 2012; Sipes et al., 2011; Solomon et al., 2012). In population-level surveillance of eight-year olds, 80 % of children with ASD had poor social-emotional reciprocity with no significant difference between males and females (Nicholas et al., 2008). Szatmari et al. (2012) also found no sex differences in social-emotional reciprocity for children with varying cognitive abilities in a study from the Autism Genome Project. Oppositely, in an age and IQ matched case–control study, female adults with ASD were found to have fewer socio-communication difficulties during interpersonal interaction than male adults with ASD (Lai et al., 2013). Lastly, no sex differences have been noted in emotional reactiveness or being withdrawn (Hartley and Sikora, 2009) and in empathetic understanding and responses (Auyeung et al., 2009).
Cognitive functioning is likely to play a role in these social processes. Lower intellectual abilities are often linked with greater social impairment regardless of sex (Dawson et al., 2007). Among children with high functioning autism (IQ≥70), social skills have been found to be more impaired in female children than male children (Holtmann et al., 2007) and more severe as children aged (McLennan et al., 1993). In contrast, other studies found adult females with high functioning autism to have less socio-communication issues compared to males (Lai et al., 2011) or there were no sex differences in socio-communication skills in older children and adolescents (Holtmann et al., 2007; Kopp and Gillberg, 2011).
Overall, the 21 articles reviewed suggest no difference in social interaction between males and females with ASD and inconsistent differences in social communication between males and females with ASD, although both social interaction and social communication may be influenced by intellectual ability and age.
Restricted, Repetitive Patterns of Behavior, Interests, or Activities
There were 18 articles reviewed on restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests (RRBI) published between 1993 and 2013: nine cross-sectional studies, seven case–control studies, one cohort study, and one surveillance study. Eleven studies were conducted in the United States and seven studies were conducted in other countries. Based on this review, the literature suggests that males with ASD have more RRBI than females with ASD (Hattier et al., 2011; Carter et al., 2007). When assessing individual facets of RRBI, restricted interests are seen more often in males with ASD than females with ASD independent of cognitive ability (Kohane et al., 2012; May et al., 2012; Mandy et al., 2012; Szatmari et al., 2012). Males with ASD are also more likely to have more routines, rituals, and fascination with parts of objects than females with ASD (Nicholas et al., 2008; Park, et al., 2012b; Beuker et al., 2013). The literature on repetitive motor movements is less consistent: adult males with high functioning autism or Asperger’s syndrome had more repetitive motor movements than adult females with high functioning autism or Asperger’s syndrome in one case-control study (May et al., 2012), but there were no sex differences in repetitive motor movements among persons with autism in two other case-control studies (McLennan et al., 1993; Worley and Matson, 2011), one cross-sectional study (Auyeung et al., 2009), and one population-based cross-sectional study (Nicholas et al., 2008).
Age may influence the presentation of RRBI in males and females with ASD. One study found no sex difference among RRBI in toddlers (Sipes et al., 2011), whereas a different study found significantly more RRBI among adult males with ASD compared to females with ASD (Hattier et al., 2011). In summation, most studies reviewed suggested that males with ASD are likely to have more RRBI than females with ASD across levels of cognitive ability, although RRBI may be influenced by age.
Sensory issues are prevalent among persons with ASD (Nicholas et al., 2008) and are included as a RRBI in the DSM 5 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Common issues are oversensitivity to touch, sound, smell, taste, and attraction to certain tactile stimuli (American Psychiatric Association, 2013; Baranek et al., 2006; Rogers et al., 2003). Abnormal sensory reactions have been reported to occur in up to 47 % of persons with ASD, which is a rate ten times higher than reported in the general population (Nicholas et al., 2008). Additionally, there is a significant correlation between sensory issues in each of the individual senses (Kern et al., 2007); therefore, impairment is compounded for persons with ASD and sensory abnormalities.
Cross-sectional studies found no observed differences between males and females in sensitivity to sound (Mandy et al., 2012) or sensory sensitivity in general (Louisa et al., 2012; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Baranek et al., 2006). Mandy et al. (2012) examined RRBI in children and adolescents 3 to 18 years of age and found that age did not influence the presentation of RRBI. However, Lai et al. (2011) found that adult females with high functioning autism had more lifetime sensory issues than males with ASD. Overall, the majority of articles reviewed that addressed sensory issues in ASD do not suggest a sex difference, although aging may be a factor and should be further explored.
Developmental Domain: other Developmental Endophenotypes
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and corresponding symptoms are common in children with ASD (Bradley and Isaacs, 2006; Nicholas et al., 2008). Previous studies show that 50 % to 83 % of children and teenagers with ASD had hyperactivity and attention problems (Nicholas et al., 2008; Bradley and Isaacs, 2006). There were seven articles that met search criteria and addressed ADHD. These seven articles were published between 2008 and 2012 with five cross-sectional studies and two cohort studies. Two studies were conducted in the United States and five were conducted in other countries.
A study of 7 to 12 year-olds with varying cognitive abilities found that males with ASD had higher levels of hyperactivity and impulsivity than females with ASD and this difference was more pronounced at younger ages (May et al., 2012). Males with high functioning autism from middle childhood to adolescence had higher levels of hyper-activity and inattention in teacher reports as compared to female peers, but there was no difference in parental reports (Mandy et al., 2012). A study of children and young adults aged 5 to 20 with high functioning autism found females had more attention problems (Bryson et al., 2008). A majority of studies found no difference in ADHD co-occurrence between males and females with ASD (Simonoff et al., 2008; Sinzig et al., 2009; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Horovitz et al., 2011). In summary, the current literature leans toward no sex differences in the co-occurrence of ADHD and ASD, but there is still inconsistency in the literature and thus, the sex difference is largely inconclusive
Challenging Behavior (Aggressiveness/Temper Tantrums/Oppositional Tendencies)
Challenging behavior is a common associated feature of ASD and includes aggression expressed toward other people, temper tantrums, and oppositional and defiant tendencies. Aggression expressed toward other people and temper tantrums are found in 50 % and 54 % of children with ASD compared to only 28 % and 23 % of children without ASD (Nicholas et al., 2008). The 12 articles in this review that met search criteria and addressed challenging behaviors were published between 2005 and 2012 and included six cross-sectional studies, four case–control studies, one clinical trial, and one surveillance study. Six studies were conducted in the United States and six were conducted in other countries. In general, there were no differences in aggression, temper tantrums, or anger between child sexes, regardless of age or cognitive ability (Kozlowski et al., 2012; Worley and Matson, 2011; Carter et al., 2007; Murphy et al., 2009; Mandy et al., 2012; Quek et al., 2012; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Horovitz et al., 2011). One study found that females with ASD had more “challenging behaviors” than males with ASD, although challenging behaviors were not explicitly defined (Dworzynski et al., 2012). Delinquent behavior (Park et al., 2012b) and oppositional defiance (Gadow et al., 2005) were more prevalent in males than in females with ASD in two studies reviewed.
Cognitive Skills and Intellectual Disability
In a review from 1966 to 2001, Fombonne (2003) found that the median prevalence of intellectual impairment in persons with ASD was 70 % in the studies evaluated. More recent population-based studies have found lower rates of ID in persons with ASD, with a range from 18 % to 55 % (Charman et al., 2011). The National Health Interview Study found 0.71 % of all children aged 3 to 17 from 1998 to 2007 had an ID (Boyle et al., 2011). Our review found 12 articles that met the search criteria and addressed ID or specific cognitive skills. These 12 articles were published between 1983 and 2011, and included seven cross-sectional studies, four case–control studies, and one-surveillance study. Four studies were conducted in the United States and eight were conducted in other countries.
The 12 articles reviewed support a relationship between child sex and co-occurring ID in children with ASD. The sex ratio between males and females without ID is greater than the sex ratio for all levels of cognitive ability combined (Nicholas et al., 2008; Hartley and Sikora, 2009). Consequently, the male to female ratio is lower when there is co-occurring ID compared to when there is no co-occurring ID (Hartley and Sikora, 2009; Nicholas et al., 2008; Yeargin-Allsopp et al., 2003). The ratio of males to females with ASD and co-occurring ID has been seen to range from 1.3:1 (Tsai and Beisler, 1983) to 2.8:1 (Bryson et al., 2008) with a trend toward fewer sex differences as ID becomes more severe (Yeargin-Allsopp et al., 2003). This differential sex difference in ID results in females with ASD, on average, having lower intelligence test scores than males with ASD (Banach et al., 2009; Volkmar et al., 1993).
Specific cognitive skills posited to vary between males and females with ASD include cognitive flexibility, response inhibition, working memory, and attention to detail (Geurts et al., 2004). Female adolescents with high functioning autism were seen to have superior information processing, multiple conceptual tracking, divided attention, and cognitive flexibility compared to male adolescents with high functioning autism (Bolte et al., 2011). In contrast, studies show males with ASD have superior attention to detail, visuo-spatial skills (Auyeung et al., 2009), and inhibitory control (Lemon et al., 2011) compared to females with ASD. There were no sex differences between adults with ASD in the “eyes test” which measures ability to infer mental states through the eyes (Lai et al., 2011). In summary, the 12 journal articles reviewed in this section suggest that females with ASD generally have lower intelligence test scores than males with ASD and that specific cognitive skills may vary by sex.
Developmental Regression
Parents of some children with ASD report a period of typical development followed by a loss in language, social, motor, self-help, imaginative play, or other skills. This developmental regression is usually reported to occur between 15 and 24 months of age (Meilleur and Fombonne, 2009). Our review found six articles that met search criteria and addressed developmental regression. These six articles were published between 2007 and 2013 and comprised two cohort studies, three cross-sectional studies, and one surveillance study. In a population-based surveillance study of children with ASD, 17 % of children had documented developmental regression and that percentage rose if the child had a previous ASD diagnosis (Wiggins et al., 2009). Males had significantly more regression than females and were more likely to regress at a younger age (Wiggins et al., 2009). This higher risk of regression in males was also seen in smaller, non-population based studies (n=4, 8, and 17 female children) (Bernabei et al., 2007; Ekinci et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2012). In contrast, a cross-sectional study found that females aged 18 months to 15 years had significantly higher occurrence of regression as compared to males (30 % vs. 19 %) (Ben-Itzchak et al., 2013). No difference in the presence of developmental regression between males and females with ASD was observed in a small clinical sample of 20 females (Meilleur and Fombonne, 2009). In sum, the review of sex differences of developmental regression is contradictory and thus inconclusive.
Excess/Absence of Fear
Excess or absence of fear is more common in children with ASD than other children (Evans et al. 2005; Nicholas et al., 2008). In a population-based surveillance of eight-year olds, Nicholas et al. (2008) found that 32 % of children with ASD had atypical fear noted in service records compared to 6 % of children with ASD symptoms but no ASD diagnosis. Three articles met search criteria and addressed excess or absence of fear. All three of these articles were published in the United States between 1990 and 2011 and were two cross-sectional studies and one case–control study. In these studies, females with ASD had more specific phobias than males with ASD (Gadow and DeVincent, 2012; Matson and Love, 1990) and more unusual fears (Mayes et al., 2013). One study conducted by Matson and Love (1990) found more fear in typically developing female children compared to male children and no significant difference in fear between typically developing female children and female children with ASD. Given the sparse amount of research on this topic, further exploration is warranted to understand sex differences in fear among persons with ASD.
Safety Issues (Self-Injury/Elopement)
About 50 % of children with ASD engage in self-injurious behavior (Richards et al., 2012; Baghdadli et al., 2003; Duerden et al., 2012). Four studies met search criteria and three pertained to self-injurious behavior. All three of these studies were cross-sectional designs with two being conducted in Europe and one in the United States. No difference in self-injurious behavior was found between males and females with ASD (Richards et al., 2012; Baghdadli et al., 2003; Duerden et al., 2012).
Elopement, also known as wandering off, is a rising concern among parents of children with ASD. One online survey addressing elopement met our search criteria. This survey was conducted in the United States in 2013 and found that 49 % of parents reported that their child with an ASD wandered off at least once after the age of four years (Anderson et al., 2012). Results also found that sex did not influence the prevalence of elopement, although children with more intellectual impairment were more likely to elope (Anderson et al., 2012). Few conclusions can be drawn since there is little research on elopement and other safety issues in children with ASD and associated sex differences.
Psychiatric Domain
Anxiety/Mood Disorders
Symptoms of anxiety and mood disorders are more prevalent in children with ASD than in typically developing children (Worley and Matson, 2011; Nicholas et al., 2008). Among children who met a surveillance definition for an ASD, 55 % had abnormal mood or affect compared to 26 % of children with at least one symptom of an ASD but no ASD diagnosis (Schendel et al., 2009). The Special Needs Autism Project in the UK found 44 cases of emotional disorder per 100 children with ASD (Simonoff et al., 2008). Moreover, among eight-year-old children who met a surveillance definition for an ASD, 3 % had anxiety, 2 % had emotional disorder, 2 % had mood disorder, and less than 2 % had obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), depression, bipolar, or oppositional defiant disorder (Levy et al., 2010). Nine studies were found that met search criteria and addressed anxiety or mood disorders. These nine studies were published between 2005 and 2012 and included five cross-sectional studies and four case–control studies. Four of the studies were conducted in the United States and five were conducted in other countries.
The literature on sex differences in co-occurring anxiety or mood disorders and ASD is mixed and dependent on cognitive abilities. In some studies, females with high functioning autism were at greater risk for internalizing psychopathology than both male children with ASD and typically developing female children (Solomon et al., 2012; Mandy et al., 2012). These studies are supported by a Finnish report that found female children with ASD had lower scores on a test associated with major depressive disorder compared to male children with ASD (Mattila et al., 2010). Other studies found no sex differences in the of co-occurrence of anxiety or depression in children with ASD and varying cognitive abilities (Quek et al., 2012; Gadow et al., 2005; Park et al., 2012b; Simonoff et al., 2008; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Lai et al., 2011). In the general population, females have more panic attacks, generalized anxiety disorders and males have more social anxiety (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Based on this review, the current literature is inconclusive on whether a sex difference in children with ASD and co-occurring anxiety or mood disorders exists, although a few studies suggest more anxiety and mood disorders in females than males with ASD.
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that involves delusions, disorganized behavior, disorganized speech, hallucinations, and restrictions in the range and intensity of emotions (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Schizophrenia typically presents between 18 and 30 years of age with earlier onset associated with male sex. Lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia is near 0.2 % (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) The prevalence of schizophrenia in eight-year olds with ASD is less than 1 % (Levy et al., 2010). Two articles met search criteria and addressed schizophrenia. These two articles were published in 2005 and 2010 and were both case–control studies. Review of the two studies found conflicting results on sex differences and the co-occurrence of ASD and schizophrenia or schizophrenia spectrum traits. A parental survey of 6 to 12 year olds with ASD found schizophrenia spectrum traits to be twice as prevalent in females compared to males (57 %: 28 %) independent of ID (Gadow and DeVincent, 2012). Conversely, in a group of 6 to 12 year olds with ASD and ID, schizophrenia was more common in males than females (Tsakanikos et al., 2011). Again, the literature is relatively sparse due to the late onset of schizophrenia and the rarity of co-occurring schizophrenia: future research is warranted.
Medical Domain
Birth defects/Chromosomal Disorders /Genetic Disorders
Population-based surveillance data from the 2008 ADDM report found that among children with ASD, less than 1 % had a co-occurrence of fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, chromosomal disorders, or other genetic and congenital diagnoses (Levy et al., 2010). It is likely that these rates are under-reported because investigation of ASD co-occurring conditions was not the focus of the ADDM surveillance effort. However, a cohort study of children in Georgia found a similar prevalence of chromosomal disorders and Down syndrome in persons with ASD (Schendel et al., 2009).
There were four studies reviewed that met search criteria and addressed ASD sex differences in birth defects, chromosomal disorders, and genetic disorders: two systematic reviews, one case–control study, and one surveillance study. Co-occurring birth defects, such as impairments to the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, genitourinary system, or musculoskeletal system, appear more often in males than females with ASD. Among children with ASD, the male to female ratio was 9:1 if a child had a co-occurring birth defect and 3.6:1 if the child did not have a co-occurring birth defect (Schendel et al., 2009).
A review conducted by Reilly (2009) found that males with ASD have more co-occurring Down syndrome than females with ASD and the male to female ratio among children with both ASD and Down syndrome may be near the overall ASD prevalence ratio of 4:1. A review conducted by Wiznitzer (2004) found no difference between males and females with ASD and the co-occurrence of tuberous sclerosis. Clifford et al. (2007) found that about 70 % of males aged 5 to 80 with fragile X syndrome had co-occurring ASD while 23 % of females in the same age range with fragile X had co-occurring ASD. The difference in co-occurrence of ASD between males and females may suggest a greater association between the two conditions in males as compared to females.
It is important to note that birth defects, chromosomal disorders, and genetic disorders are rare and seldom studied. Therefore, the results on sex differences for co-occurring ASD and chromosomal and genetic conditions are inconclusive.
Head Size / Encephalopathy
Head size, specifically an enlarged head circumference or macrocephaly, has been associated with ASD (Wallace and Treffert, 2004). Three articles were reviewed that examined differences in head size between males and females with ASD. Studies include two case–control studies and one cross-sectional study. Two studies were conducted in the US and one study was conducted in Italy. A cross-sectional study by Fombonne et al. (1999) found no difference in head size between males and females aged 2 to 16 with ASD. Sacco et al. (2007) also found no difference in head size between males and females aged 3 to 16 with ASD. In contrast, Aylward et al. (2002) found larger head sizes in male adults and children compared to female adults and children with ASD, but the female sample size was low (n=9).
Abnormal Eating and Gastrointestinal Issues
In a population-based study conducted by Nicholas et al. (2008), about 54 % of children with ASD had an abnormality in eating, drinking, or sleeping, which is nearly 40 % higher than that of children with at least one symptom of ASD but no diagnosis (Nicholas et al., 2008). Some studies have shown an increase in certain gastrointestinal symptoms among persons with ASD, including constipation (Ibrahim et al., 2009) and diarrhea (Wang et al., 2006), while other studies found no significant increase in overall gastrointestinal symptoms or symptoms such as esophageal reflux, vomiting, and abdominal discomfort (Ibrahim et al., 2009; Wang et al., 2006; Valicenti-McDermott et al., 2007). However, little research on gastrointestinal issues has been conducted at a population level and no studies were found that compared males to females on gastrointestinal response. More research is needed to determine if there is an association between gastrointestinal symptoms and ASD and whether the association differs between the sexes.
Four studies were found that compared the sexes and addressed food selectivity. These four studies were conducted in the United States between 2006 and 2010 and included one case–control and three cross-sectional designs. In general, review of these studies found food selectivity and feeding issues to be more frequent in children with ASD than children without ASD (Valicenti-McDermott et al., 2007; Ibrahim et al., 2009), although limited research is available in this area. There was no difference between child sexes in over or under-eating in a study of children with high functioning autism (Worley and Matson, 2011) and no differences between the sexes in eating abnormalities in two studies conducted in children with ASD and varying cognitive abilities (Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Horovitz et al., 2011). Based on this limited review, it appears unlikely that there is a difference in eating habits between males and females with ASD.
Seizures/ Epilepsy
Epilepsy and other seizure disorders co-occur in 5 % to 40 % of children with ASD and there is differential prevalence based on ID (Baird et al., 2008; Nicholas et al., 2008). This review found three articles that met search criteria and addressed seizures or epilepsy. These three articles were published between 2008 and 2013 and consist of a cohort study, one cross-sectional study, and one meta-analysis. Females with ASD were found to have more epilepsy than males with ASD; the male to female ratio drops to near 2:1 in children with ASD and co-occurring epilepsy, but this may be partly due to differential ID (Amiet et al., 2008; Bolton et al., 2011; Ben-Itzchak et al., 2013). There may be an increased likeliness in females with ASD to have co-occurring epilepsy or seizure disorder; however, the literature is sparse so a conclusion cannot be drawn. Further research is needed to enhance current knowledge of sex differences in children with ASD and epilepsy or seizure disorder.
Sleep Disturbances
In a systematic review of parental sleep surveys, sleep problems were present in 50 % to 80 % of children with ASD compared to 9 % to 50 % in matched typically developing children (Kotagal and Broomall, 2012). There were six articles reviewed that met search criteria and addressed sleep disturbances. These six articles were published between 2004 and 2012 and included two case–control studies, two cohort studies, and two cross-sectional studies. Four were conducted in the United States and three were conducted in other countries. Based on this review, some studies found no sex differences in sleep problems among persons with ASD (Liu et al., 2006; Wiggs and Stores, 2004; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Horovitz et al., 2011), one study found that female children with ASD have less sleep problems than male children with ASD (Sivertsen et al., 2012), and one study found female children with ASD have more sleep problems than male children with ASD (Hartley and Sikora, 2009). The minimal amount of research in this area leads to inconsistent results and prevents definitive conclusions on whether a sex difference exists in sleep disturbance.
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Vaccine News – Doctors Against Vaccines – Hear From Those Who Have Done the Research

Doctors Against Vaccines – Hear From Those Who Have Done the Research
June 7, 2015 by Joel Edwards
Last updated on: May 21, 2016
The general public shares a common misconception – that all doctors, or all “real doctors” support vaccination. Although it is true that the majority of doctors support vaccines, not all do.
Most doctors blindly support the recommendations of the American Medical Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics. Doctors are trained in administering vaccines, not in how they are made. There are some doctors that choose to do the research themselves in order to develop an informed opinion on the subject. These doctors who become knowledgeable about vaccines usually become anti-vaccine. A little knowledge goes a long way.
Without a doubt we live in the age of autism, but it is also the age of chronic illness. One in eighty-eight children are diagnosed with autism, while half of all children now struggle with chronic illnesses such as asthma, diabetes, ADHD, etc. This rise in illness correlates with the dramatic increase in vaccines given to our children along with a growing exposure to other toxic chemicals

1918 Spanish Flu Was Caused By Vaccinations, Shocking Report
May 13, 2015 Sean Adl-Tabatabai
Shortly after the First World War, vaccine makers had an excess supply of vaccines (originally intended for soldiers to treat yellow fever), as a result of the relatively unexpected short duration of the war.
A huge vaccination campaign was drummed up to vaccinate the population against “foreign illnesses” the troops were returning with. The vaccines administered to most of the population made people extremely ill with cases of high fever, extreme weakness, abdominal rash, and intestinal disturbances characteristic of typhoid, to name but a few symptoms.
In order to treat these symptoms pharmaceutical companies and doctors developed stronger vaccines to treat the symptoms of the previous ones. The ongoing asault of ever-stronger vaccines being administered to the public created a widespread epidemic of vaccine related illnesses which the government were forced to blame on Spanish Flu.

Exclusive: The Spanish Influenza Epidemic Of 1918 Was Caused By Vaccinations
Published on October 15, 2013
Therefore, there will be no swine flu epidemic unless the vaccine promoters make one like they did in the 1918 flu epidemic. It will not kill 20,000,000 people unless the people submit to the disease-producing shots. There are also, other causes of disease besides vaccines, such as bad food, which has been devitalized and contaminated with poison preservatives and artificial drug concoctions. There are many more causes of disease but no diseases are contagious.
Vaccine drives come and go as often as the vaccine promoters can cook up the slightest pretense of a reason.n Back in1957 they were trying to stir up a vaccination campaign for what they decided to call Asiatic flu. An editorial in the Herald and Express for August 29, 1957 was captioned, “Fear of Flu Propaganda.” Part of the piece is as follows:
“What a tempest in a teapot has been blown up over the probability that this country will experience an epidemic of the Asiatic flu in the fall and winter months ahead.
“Even the United States Department of Health is stooge for the panic — and has issued statements which are frightening the public, rather than reassuring them by pointing out that this epidemic, while widespread, gives no indication of being any more dangerous than our usual flood of influenza-like colds when winter comes on.
“Those who read between the lines even wonder whether the whole thing might not be a bit of super salesmanship on the part of those who are making and selling the vaccines which are being prepared.. . .”

What the News Isn’t Saying About Vaccine-Autism Studies
by sattkisson    on November 27, 2016
A new study this week found no link between vaccines and autism. It instantly made headlines on TV news and popular media everywhere. Many billed it as the final word, “once again,” disproving the notion that vaccines could have anything to do with autism.
What you didn’t learn on the news was that the study was from a consulting firm that lists major vaccine makers among its clients: The Lewin Group.
That potential conflict of interest was not disclosed in the paper published in The New England Journal of Medicine; the study authors simply declare “The Lewin Group operates with editorial independence.”
(As an aside, according to OpenSecrets.org, The Lewin Group’s parent company, UnitedHealth Group, is a key government partner in Obamacare. Its subsidiary QSSI was given the contract to build the federal government’s HealthCare.gov website. One of its top executives and his family are top Obama donors.)
Conflicts of interest alone do not invalidate a study. But they serve as important context in the relentless effort by pharmaceutical interests and their government partners to discredit the many scientists and studies that have found possible vaccine-autism links.
Many Studies Suggest Possible Vaccine-Autism Links

Quit Using Immunocompromised People to Promote Your Vaccine Agenda
CDC, I’m talking to you. Media, I’m talking to you. Pediatricians, I’m talking to you. Parents who shame other parents, I’m talking to you. Using immunocompromised people as pawns in a vaccine-pushing agenda that twists scientific data to manipulate emotions is abhorrent.
As the mother of a child with an immunodeficiency, I can say with certainty there is no human on this planet who cares more about his health and well being than I do. I can also say with certainty that the push to vaccinate for the sake of the immunocompromised has nothing to do with science and everything to do with an agenda.
Once upon a time, listening only to propaganda and not bothering to read the fine print, I lined up for the flu shot to “protect” my son. That was before I understood these facts.
Vaccine induced herd immunity doesn’t exist. You, of course, are supposed to believe it does and you’re supposed to believe if you don’t vaccinate your child, my son could suffer or even die. The concept of herd immunity is promoted to coerce people to do their part for the immunocompromised but it isn’t supported by factual data.

The Hate Debate
Megan Heimer April 15, 2014
I am sick of it … this vaccination debate. My convictions not to vaccinate have been firm for eight years now and I was comfortable living a low-profile life and letting other more notable activists carry the torch; and then I started seeing misleading t.v. interviews, news stories, and backlash against parents and unvaccinated children. I saw reputable medical professionals get crucified and reputations destroyed for questioning the mainstream norm. I saw laws passed in other states removing freedoms that rightfully belong to parents and individuals as a whole. I saw fear, blame, finger-pointing, lies, and flat-out hate being propagated and encouraged by people, physicians, and popular media avenues towards parents who don’t vaccinate, and their children.
This isn’t a vaccination debate – it’s a hate debate, so let’s call it what it is. When it got personal I got involved, so let’s clear a few things up:
I am not an “anti-vaxxer” or a “disinformation  activist.”
I am a parent. Some people believe that parents can’t make an educated decision on this issue, that you should check all of your questions and reservations about vaccinating at the door and trust your physician, that is unless your physician also questions vaccines (or supports a delayed schedule), then he’s a quack.

Dr. Suzanne Humphries, M.D. – Vaccine Strain of Measles Virus Found in Measles Outbreaks
May 19, 2017
Dr. Suzanne Humphries is a practicing nephrologist (kidney physician). In this lecture (video below), she addresses a study done in Croatia [1] where a child who was vaccinated with the MMR vaccine was tested positive for the measles vaccine strain Schwarz eight days after vaccination.
This was a significant finding, because the child’s symptoms were thought to be similar to rubella, and without testing, the sickness would have been possibly mis-diagnosed as rubella, or the wild-type strain of measles the vaccine is designed to protect against.
This concept of “shedding,” where the child comes down with the disease from the virus in the vaccine itself, surprised the researchers:
Virus excretion in vaccinees has been reported before, but to our knowledge, this is documented for the first time for the Schwarz vaccine strain. [1]
Since 2010, this phenomena of vaccine shedding with measles in the MMR vaccine has been observed in at least two other studies:
Differentiating the wild from the attenuated during a measles outbreak. Paediatrcis and Child Health, 2012:
In the midst of a local measles outbreak, a recently immunized child was investigated for a new-onset measles-type rash. Nucleic acid testing identified that a vaccine-type measles virus was being shed in the urine. Clinically differentiating measles from a nonmeasles rash is challenging, but can be supported by a thorough medical history evaluation. Rashes are expected to occur after immunization; nucleic acid testing can be used when it is difficult to differentiate between wild and attenuated strains. [2]
Case of vaccine-associated measles five weeks post-immunisation, British Columbia, Canada, Eurosurveillance, 2013:
We describe a case of vaccine-associated measles in a two-year-old patient from British Columbia, Canada, in October 2013, who received her first dose of measles-containing vaccine 37 days prior to onset of prodromal symptoms. Identification of this delayed vaccine-associated case occurred in the context of an outbreak investigation of a measles cluster. [3]
Are health officials testing cases of measles in the current outbreak in the United States, to determine if the measles strain is the wild strain of the vaccine strain?
Not likely, and it is not likely that the mainstream media “TV doctors” will even discuss this as they falsely vilify parents who choose not to administer the MMR vaccine to their children as the cause of these outbreaks. Some of these cases are confirmed to be among those who have received the MMR vaccine, and for those who have not been vaccinated, is it possible they were infected from those recently vaccinated when the vaccine was still “shedding,” and that the vaccine-strain of measles was passed on from the vaccinated child to the unvaccinated child?

Former Merck Rep Says Mandatory Vaccination Is For Profit and Not Public Health
Larry Cook August 5, 2015

Former Merck Rep Says Mandatory Vaccination Is For Profit and Not Public Health
Brandy Vaughan is a former sales rep for Merck & Co. – a vaccine maker – and she details how vaccine companies are using vaccines as a vehicle for massive profit and not public health. Brandy researched the safety of vaccines and found that not only do vaccines contain known toxins that can cause neurological damage, but that vaccine makers do not create the same safety studies for vaccines as they do for other drugs. This lack of true safety research of vaccines combined with the known adverse reactions to vaccination has helped Brandy to decide to never vaccinate her own child. Brandy says giving children a vaccine is like playing Russian roulette with our children and that mandatory vaccination is simply a way for vaccine makers to profit off of our children. Don’t be fooled: we do not need mandatory vaccination.
Produced by Larry Cook
Founder and Director of www.StopMandatoryVaccination.com

Mirror UK – Baby girl dies just 24 hours after contracting meningitis even though she had all the right jabs
Zoe O’Connor and her partner were forced to say their final goodbyes to baby Ava after awful rash came over her body in hospitals
An adorable baby girl has died 24 hours after contracting meningitis – despite having all her jabs to prevent the disease.
Zoe O’Connor, 29, from Swansea, and partner Jamie Jeremiah, 34, were forced to say their final goodbyes to their baby daughter Ava after she contracted meningitis and septicaemia.
The devastated mum-of-three and her partner had only just celebrated Ava’s first birthday and had taken all the precautions to prevent meningitis by having the newly introduced vaccinations.

Natural News – If vaccines are 100% safe and have harmed no one, then why did the U.S. government pay out over $3 billion in awards to thousands of families damaged by vaccines?
Wednesday, May 17, 2017 by: Vicki Batts
(Natural News) While the mainstream media may love to laud vaccines, and proponents of the vaccine agenda praise Big Pharma’s injections as a holy grail for humanity, the truth is that vaccines are not some kind of flawless gift to civilization. Vaccines, like everything else in life, are not and cannot be guaranteed to be 100 percent safe. Even something as seemingly innocuous as water can be fatal, even in a small amount.
Not only would it be silly to assume that vaccines are perfect, it would go against all available facts about vaccines. The United States government has created a system for people who are harmed by vaccines, so they can report these events, and even make claims via a court system so families can receive financial restitution for their suffering.
But vaccines are harmless, right? Yet, the government has paid out over $3 billion in awards and legal fees for families and persons that have been affected by vaccine damage between the years of 1989 and 2015. In total, 3,937 cases have resulted in the awarding of financial compensation via the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP).
And those are just the ones who managed to convince the court that a vaccine damaged their child or themselves. Nearly 10,000 people have had their cases dismissed by the court. This is unsurprising, because as you might imagine, it can be difficult to convince the court. Very difficult.
National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program Statistics Report 2015

 

Vaccine News – Study – INFANTS RECEIVING MERCURY-CONTAINING VACCINES DEVELOPED SPEECH DISORDERS, SLEEP DISORDERS, AND AUTISM, ACCORDING TO CDC SCIENTISTS

Dr. Andrew Moulden: Every Vaccine Produces Harm
by John P. Thomas
Health Impact News
Canadian physician Dr. Andrew Moulden provided clear scientific evidence to prove that every dose of vaccine given to a child or an adult produces harm. The truth that he uncovered was rejected by the conventional medical system and the pharmaceutical industry. Nevertheless, his warning and his message to America remains as a solid legacy of the man who stood up against big pharma and their program to vaccinate every person on the Earth.
Dr Moulden died unexpectedly in November of 2013 at age 49.
Because of the strong opposition from big pharma concerning Dr. Moulden’s research, I became concerned that the name of this brilliant researcher and his life’s work had nearly been deleted from the internet. His reputation was being disparaged, and his message of warning and hope was being distorted and buried without a tombstone.
I prepared a series of articles as a tribute to a great physician and as a memorial to a courageous individual who was not afraid to speak the truth about medical corruption and a flawed healthcare system that does more to harm health than it does to cure disease.
This is the first in a series of four articles about Dr. Moulden — the man, the physician, and the powerful advocate for ending all vaccine use. In future articles, I will summarize his detailed scientific evidence, which shows how vaccine damage occurs. I will explain the common mechanisms behind vaccine damage and how vaccines harm the health of everyone who receives them regardless of whether or not they notice any adverse reactions at the time they take the shots.
Dr. Moulden stated:
What we have done to each other [with vaccines] has produced the most profound damage to humankind by humankind in the history of humanity. And the reason why we got here is partly because of:
Our arrogance in thinking that we know everything. In physiology and medicine we do not know everything!
[Our greed] to advance our own self-interest to make money, to sell products and to advance corporate alliances. Commercialization has overtaken the fundamental human value of “do unto others as you would have others do unto you.” When society turns toward this human value, then we would all be working together for the greater good of each other. [However, other values have become more important] I don’t care whose feet I step on or how I get there as long as my American dream is realized. I don’t care who has to pay for it on the way of getting there. [1]
Dr. Moulden’s Credibility
Was Dr. Moulden a crackpot as some sources claim, or was he a brilliant physician and researcher? This series of articles will set the record straight, and summarize the contribution that his work has made to medical knowledge.
When I evaluate the credibility of people who are unknown to me, I begin by seeking answers to a few basic questions. For example: Is this person offering opinion, or can he or she back up the claims with valid science? Does he have educational credentials? Are there other physicians and scientists who support his or her beliefs and recommendations? Is this person controlled by the pharmaceutical industry, allopathic medical associations, or the US FDA (US Food and Drug Administration)? And finally, what do Quackwatch and their friends have to say about the person?
Dr. Moulden had a PhD in Clinical Psychology and Neuropsychology. He had a master’s degree in child development, and was also a medical doctor. [2] His work was respected by other researchers who don’t march to the drumbeat of the pharmaceutical companies. Dr. Moulden was a threat to the pharmaceutical industry, and their Quackwatch family of 21 related websites treated him as an enemy. [3, 4]

Vaccine Contraindications: Six People Who Should Not Be Vaccinated
The debate surrounding vaccinations is a fierce one, and personally, I don’t like to argue about it. I’m happy to make the right choices for my family while you make the right ones for yours. (I personally have suffered adverse reactions to vaccinations.) It’s ok to have different opinions, really it is. But there are a lot of folks out there who think everyone should be vaccinated, period, and those who choose not to vaccinate should be penalized or worse.
Listen. I get that people are scared and there’s a lot of fear-mongering in the media. But let’s be realistic here: vaccinations are a medical procedure. There are risks. Vaccinations are not right for everyone. There are at least six types of people in particular who should avoid vaccinations, and below, I’ll spell it out.
Vaccine Contraindications
Just like a particular surgery or prescription medication won’t work well for everyone, vaccinations are not a good choice for everyone.
Some people, in particular, are much more likely to have adverse reactions to vaccinations, including:

– Those with an autoimmune disease
– Children born to a mother with an autoimmune disease
– Anyone who is sick
– Pregnant women
– Those who have previously had a reaction to a vaccination

One size does not fit all
Clearly, vaccinations are not the right choice for everyone, and each family should decide what is right for them and their children. When parents are aware of vaccine contraindications, they can make informed and safer choices for their children.
Please share this post so that other parents can learn about vaccine contraindications and decide if vaccination is right for their children.

USA: Highest Vaccination Rate in the World Has the Worst Health
by PAUL FASSA
That “worst health” label includes a ranking of 34th in the world with infant mortality. In other words, the USA has the 34th worst infant survival with its highest rate of vaccinations. Some are directly from multiple vaccinations administered.
But the USA leads the world in infant vaccinations, those administered during the first year after their births – 26 vaccinations during that time.
The only vaccination I recall receiving during early childhood, circa 1948, was the smallpox vaccine, the one that left a circle of shallow pockmarks on the upper arm, a non-ink tattoo that proved you had received that vaccine. Months later there was the booster shot which gave me a vacation of several days away from my first grade teacher while sitting out the chicken pox.
During Naval training the mass vaccination high pressure hand held gun that replaced syringes and needles was tried on us with the polio shot. I wound up with a vacation in the base infirmary with an extended period of the flu. Between those two, there may have been a tetanus shot or two.
From the Healthy Home Economist:

-In1950, there were 3 childhood vaccines typically given when a child entered school.
-In 1983, there were 10 recommended vaccines by the age of 6 years old (24 doses, 7 injections, 4 oral doses for polio).
-In 2010, the CDC vax schedule totaled 68 doses with more than half given by the time a child was only a year and a half old.
-In 2016, the schedule has increased to 74 doses by age 17 with 53 injections and 3 oral doses of rotavirus.

The number of vaccines included in the current childhood vaccine schedule has quadrupled over the past 60 years, with several demanding multiple injections and boosters. During this exponential rise of CDC “recommended” schedules, the health of American children has plummeted.
Autoimmune diseases, learning disabilities, food allergies, chronic ailments, and childhood obesity have all risen. The overall health of this nation ranks very low compared to all other industrialized nations, dead last in most areas.
Vaccine false dogma is so heavy hardly anyone with authority, even in mainstream media, makes the connection between poor health with high vaccination rates. Instead, more, three added for 2016, are getting enforced by mandate or coerced by pediatricians who have the right to refuse medical care on kids who aren’t vaccinated.
Destroying Health with Vaccines is Good Business

50 Studies the AAP Avoided to Mention
There is a robust, worldwide body of published science from highly esteemed scientists questioning the safety of many different aspects of vaccines-how come we never hear from them? The majority of the most compelling science has been published since 2010. Below find 50 such studies to consider, sorted chronologically, and note that these studies only represent a portion of the published work implicating vaccinations in a wide variety of negative health outcomes.
The American Academy of Pediatrics made representations to President Trump in a letter dated 2/7/2017 that are utterly indefensible and inaccurate, as any rational review of the studies below quickly demonstrates. For example, the AAP wrote:
“Claims that vaccines are unsafe when administered according to expert recommendations have been disproven by a robust body of medical literature…we write to express our unequivocal support for the safety of vaccines.”
We contend that the AAP’s statements to the President are baseless, reckless, and easily refuted. The AAP’s letter alone supports the President’s desire to field a Vaccine Safety Commission and do all we can to make vaccines as safe as possible. Please click here for a list of all 50 studies detailed below.

2017
Temporal Association of Certain Neuropsychiatric Disorders Following Vaccination of Children and Adolescents A Pilot Case–Control Study
New Quality-Control Investigations on Vaccines Micro-and Nanocontamination
2016
Behavioral abnormalities in female mice following administration of aluminum adjuvants and the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Gardasil
Autoimmune/Inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants and Sjogren’s Syndrome
Combining Childhood Vaccines at One Visit Is Not Safe
Aluminum in Childhood Vaccines Is Unsafe
Aluminium in brain tissue in familial Alzheimer’s disease
2015
Evidence that Food Proteins in Vaccines Cause the Development of Food Allergies and Its Implications for Vaccine Policy
2014
Transcriptomic Analyses of Neurotoxic Effects in Mouse Brain After Intermittent Neonatal Administration of Thimerosal
A Dose-Response Relationship between Organic Mercury Exposure from Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines and Neurodevelopmental Disorders
A comparison of temporal trends in United States autism prevalence to trends in suspected environmental factors
2013
A Population-Based Cohort Study of Undervaccination in 8 Managed Care Organizations Across the United States
Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) 2013: Unveiling the pathogenic, clinical and diagnostic aspects
Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity in humans and animals, vaccine adjuvants, and autoimmunity
Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (Shoenfeld’s syndrome): clinical and immunological spectrum
A two-phase study evaluating the relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccine administration and the risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in the United States
Human exposure to aluminium
Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine and Primary Ovarian Failure: Another Facet of the Autoimmune/Inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants
2012
Risk of Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy After Vaccination With Diphtheria, Tetanus, Acellular Pertussis, Inactivated Poliovirus, and Haemophilus Influenzae Type b
Mechanisms of aluminum adjuvant toxicity and autoimmunity in pediatric populations
Neurologic adverse events following vaccination
The spectrum of ASIA: ‘Autoimmune (Auto-inflammatory) Syndrome induced by Adjuvants’
Relative trends in hospitalizations and mortality among infants by the number of vaccine doses and age, based on the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1990-2010
2011
Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism?
Maternal Thimerosal Exposure Results in Aberrant Cerebellar Oxidative Stress, Thyroid Hormone Metabolism, and Motor Behavior in Rat Pups; Sex- and Strain-Dependent Effects
2010
Interindividual variations in the efficacy and toxicity of vaccines
Sorting out the spinning of autism: heavy metals and the question of incidence
Influence of pediatric vaccines on amygdala growth and opioid ligand binding in rhesus macaque infants: A pilot study
The immunobiology of aluminium adjuvants: how do they really work?
Hepatitis B Vaccination of Male Neonates and Autism Diagnosis, NHIS 1997-2002
2009
Allergic Disease and Atopic Sensitization in Children in Relation to Measles Vaccination and Measles Infection
Long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminum hydroxide is associated with chronic cognitive dysfunction
Delayed acquisition of neonatal reflexes in newborn primates receiving a thimerosal-containing Hepatitis B vaccine: Influence of gestational age and birth weight
Aluminum hydroxide injections lead to motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration
2008
Post-vaccination encephalomyelitis: Literature review and illustrative case
Thimerosal exposure in infants and neurodevelopmental disorders: An assessment of computerized medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink
Delay in diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus vaccination is associated with a reduced risk of childhood asthma?
Hepatitis B triple series vaccine and developmental disability in US children aged 1-9 years
2005
THE MERCURY USED AS A VACCINE PRESERVATIVE IS FAR MORE NEUROTOXIC THAN THE MERCURY FOUND IN FISH
Comparison of Blood and Brain Mercury Levels in Infant Monkeys Exposed to Methylmercury or Vaccines Containing Thimerosal
Thimerosal Neurotoxicity is Associated with Glutathione Depletion: Protection with Glutathione Precursors
2004
Activation of methionine synthase by insulin-like growth factor-1 and dopamine: a target for neurodevelopmental toxins and thimerosal
2002
UTAH STATE SCIENTISTS FIND AUTOIMMUNE REACTION TO MMR IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM, INCLUDING AUTOIMMUNITY TO MYELIN BASIC PROTEIN, A BRAIN BUILDING-BLOCK
Abnormal Measles-Mumps-Rubella Antibodies and CNS Autoimmunity in Children with Autism
2001
Macrophagic myofasciitis lesions assess long-term persistence of vaccine derived aluminum hydroxide in muscle
2000
JAPANESE SCIENTISTS FIND VACCINE-STRAIN OF MEASLES IN THE GUTS OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM
Detection and Sequencing of Measles Virus from Peripheral Mononuclear Cells from Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Autism
CDC SCIENTISTS ADMIT THAT 90% OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE MORTALITY DECREASE IN THE UNITED STATES HAPPENED BEFORE VACCINES WERE AVAILABLE
Annual Summary of Vital Statistics: Trends in the Health of Americans During the 20th Century
Iatrogenic exposure to mercury after hepatitis B vaccination in preterm infants
Effects of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis or Tetanus Vaccination on Allergies and Allergy-Related Respiratory Symptoms Among Children and Adolescents in the United States
1999
INFANTS RECEIVING MERCURY-CONTAINING VACCINES DEVELOPED SPEECH DISORDERS, SLEEP DISORDERS, AND AUTISM, ACCORDING TO CDC SCIENTISTS
Increased risk of developmental neurologic impairment after high exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccine in first month of life
INFECTIOUS DISEASE RATES DECLINED PRECIPITOUSLY IN THE UNITED STATES IN THE 20TH CENTURY BEFORE THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A NATIONAL VACCINE PROGRAM
Trends in Infectious Disease Mortality in the United States During the 20th Century
CDC SCIENTISTS FIND CHILDREN GIVEN THE MMR VACCINE SHED THE MEASLES VIRUS FOR AT LEAST 2 WEEKS AFTER GETTING THE VACCINE, MAKING THEM VECTORS TO SPREAD MEASLES
Detection of Measles Virus RNA in Urine Specimens from Vaccine Recipients

Vaccine News – Study – Metals Debris Found in Vaccine Supply

Lead developer of HPV vaccine admits it’s a giant, deadly scam
Thursday, September 29, 2016 by: Samantha Debbie
(NaturalNews) An expert involved in the approval process for the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines Gardasil and Cervarix, is speaking out about the dangers and why you shouldn’t risk your child’s health in getting them.
Diane Harper, M.D., professor and chair of the department of Family and Geriatric Medicine at the University of Louisville, revealed at the 4th International Conference on Vaccination that HPV vaccines are essentially worthless, because rates of cervical cancer in the U.S. are extremely low anyway.
Her speech was intended to promote the benefits of vaccines, but she changed her mind and went in a different direction in an effort to “clean her conscience about the deadly vaccines,” according to The Daily Sheeple.
Dr. Harper, a former vaccine research scientist for Merck, said she wouldn’t be able to sleep at night unless she aired the truth about HPV vaccines. In her speech, given in Reston, Virginia, she said that 70 percent of all HPV infections resolve themselves without treatment, and 90 percent do so within two years.
Over 40 young girls reported to have died from HPV vaccines
All safety trials for HPV vaccines were done on 15-year-olds, said Dr. Harper, and not 9-year-olds, the demographic for which the immunizations are now recommended. Furthermore, there is a real risk associated with these vaccines, she added.
More than 15,000 girls have experienced adverse side effects from Gardasil, according to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). A number likely to be far higher in reality, since many vaccine side effects go unreported.
At least 44 girls are known to have died from these vaccines. Some side effects experienced by those receiving the HPV vaccines include seizures, blood clots, brain inflammation, lupus and Guillain Barre Syndrome, a rare but serious autoimmune deficiency that causes the immune system to attack and damage nerve cells.
While the majority of those with GBS recover, the disorder may cause muscle weakness, difficulty breathing, paralysis and sometimes death.
As with most vaccines, parents are usually not made aware of the risks.
HPV vaccines work on only four of the 40 strains of the venereal disease

How Vaccinated Kids Infect The Non-Vaccinated
Posted on:Sunday, February 8th 2015 at 3:45 pm Written By: Sayer Ji, Founder
This article is copyrighted by GreenMedInfo LLC, 2015
With the thousands of mainstream media articles blaming the non-vaccinated for disease outbreaks, this article will provide a necessary counterbalance by showing the vaccinated can (and do) infect the non-vaccinated…
A groundbreaking study published in 2013 in the journal Vaccine titled, “Comparison of virus shedding after lived attenuated and pentavalent reassortant rotavirus vaccine,” referenced the fact that rotavirus vaccines contain live viruses capable of causing infection, shedding and even transmission to non-vaccinated subjects:
“In fact, transmission of these two rotavirus vaccines or vaccine-reassortment strains to unvaccinated contacts has been detected [9–13][1], even in the absence of symptoms.”
One of the five studies referenced in the passage above confirming that the vaccinated can infect the non-vaccinated, “Sibling transmission of vaccine-derived rotavirus (RotaTeq) associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis,” published in 2009, is the first report in the literature to identify the transmission of rotavirus vaccine-derived virus to unvaccinated contacts resulting in symptomatic rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring emergency medical attention:
“We document here the occurrence of vaccine-derived rotavirus (RotaTeq [Merck and Co, Whitehouse Station, NJ]) transmission from a vaccinated infant to an older, unvaccinated sibling, resulting in symptomatic rotavirus gastroenteritis that required emergency department care.”
The study also indicated that two of the five strains of rotavirus within the Rotateq reassorted to produce a more harmful virus either within the vaccinated infant or within the subsequently infected unvaccinated sibling:
“Results of our investigation suggest that reassortment between vaccine component strains of genotypes P7[5]G1 and P1A[8]G6 occurred during replication either in the vaccinated infant or in the older sibling, raising the possibility that this reassortment may have increased the virulence of the vaccine-derived virus.”
This phenomenon of Rotateq vaccine strain reassortment and subsequent gastoenteritis infection in vaccine recipients was also observed in a 2012 study in 61 infants.[2] Additionally, A Nicaraguan study published in 2012 found “the widespread use of the RotaTeq vaccine has led to the introduction of vaccine genes into circulating human RVs.,” revealing that the widespread introduction of the vaccine strain has altered the genetic makeup of wild-type rotavirus that now infects exposed populations.[3]
It has been estimated that between 80-100% of infants shed rotavirus at some point during 25-28 days after vaccination.[4] [5] This reveals that the vaccinated, contrary to widespread assumptions about the the risks represented by the non-vaccinated, pose a clear risk of infecting the non-vaccinated, and may be producing the ideal virological conditions for the recombination of diverse rotavirus strains into vaccine-resistant ‘super viruses.’
Another case study, reported on in the National Vaccine Information Center’s document on vaccine viral shedding:
“In 2010, a case report was published in Pediatrics describing a 30-month old healthy boy who had never received rotavirus vaccine and was infected with vaccine strain rotavirus. 237 He ended up in the emergency room with severe gastroenteritis 10 days after his healthy two-month old brother was given a dose of Merck’s RotaTeq vaccine. A stool sample was taken in the emergency room and came back positive for RotaTeq vaccine derived strains after RT-PCR testing.”
The authors of the case report noted that “transmission of RotaTeq strains to unvaccinated contacts was not evaluated in the pivotal [pre-licensure] clinical trials.” They added that  both RotaTeq and Rotarix [GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals] vaccines have “the potential for vaccine-virus transmission to contacts.”

Study 2014 Feb 26 – Comparison of virus shedding after lived attenuated and pentavalent reassortant rotavirus vaccine.
Transmission of rotavirus vaccine or vaccine-reassortant strains to unvaccinated contacts has been reported. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate and characterize the nature of vaccine-virus shedding among rotavirus vaccine recipients. Two groups of healthy infants who received a complete course of RotaTeq (RV5) or Rotarix (RV2) were enrolled (between March 2010 and June 2011) to compare fecal shedding for one month after each vaccine dose. Shedding was assessed using both enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Eighty-seven infants (34 girls and 53 boys) were enrolled in the study. After the first vaccine dose, the peak time of virus shedding occurred between day 4 and day 7, with positive detection rates of 80-90% by real-time RT-PCR and 20-30% by EIA. In both groups, vaccine shedding occurred as early as one day and as late as 25-28 days. Mixed effects logistic regression analysis of real-time RT-PCR data showed no significant differences between two groups when shedding rates were compared after the first vaccine dose (odds ratio [OR] 1.26; P=0.71) or after the second vaccine dose (odds ratio [OR] 1.26; P=0.99). However, infants receiving RV2 shed significantly higher viral loads than those receiving RV5 when compared after the first vaccine dose (P=0.001) and after the second dose (P=0.039). In terms of shedding rates detected by real-time RT-PCR, vaccine uptake of RV5 or RV2 among infants in Taiwan was comparable. Clinical significance of higher shedding viral loads in RV2 should be further observed.

Study 2010 Feb – Sibling transmission of vaccine-derived rotavirus (RotaTeq) associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis.
Although rotavirus vaccines are known to be shed in stools, transmission of vaccine-derived virus to unvaccinated contacts resulting in symptomatic rotavirus gastroenteritis has not been reported to our knowledge. We document here the occurrence of vaccine-derived rotavirus (RotaTeq [Merck and Co, Whitehouse Station, NJ]) transmission from a vaccinated infant to an older, unvaccinated sibling, resulting in symptomatic rotavirus gastroenteritis that required emergency department care. Results of our investigation suggest that reassortment between vaccine component strains of genotypes P7[5]G1 and P1A[8]G6 occurred during replication either in the vaccinated infant or in the older sibling, raising the possibility that this reassortment may have increased the virulence of the vaccine-derived virus. Both children remain healthy 11 months after this event and are without underlying medical conditions.

CDC – The Emerging Risks of Live Virus & Virus Vectored Vaccines: Vaccine Strain Virus Infection, Shedding & Transmission
Referenced Report from the National Vaccine Information Center
by Barbara Loe Fisher Co-founder & President
Your Health. Your Family. Your Choice.
Can People Receiving Live Virus Vaccines Transmit Vaccine Strain Virus to Others?
Public health officials say that unvaccinated children pose a big danger to those around them and even threaten the health of fully vaccinated children and adults because vaccines can fail to prevent infection in vaccinated persons.
Today, the most common argument used to justify “no exceptions” mandatory vaccination laws is that unvaccinated people pose a serious health threat to others who “cannot be vaccinated,” such as the immunocompromised.
Some parents of unvaccinated children are asking the opposite question:
Could my unvaccinated or immune compromised child get sick from coming in contact with a recently vaccinated person?
When it comes to live virus vaccines, the short answer is:
Yes.
During a viral infection, live virus is shed in the body fluids of those who are infected for varying amounts of time and can be transmitted to others. Vaccine strain live virus is also shed for varying amounts of time in the body fluids of vaccinated people and can be transmitted to others. Although public health officials maintain that live attenuated virus vaccines rarely cause complications in the vaccinated person and that vaccine strain viral shedding rarely causes disease in close contacts of the recently vaccinated, it is important to be aware that vaccine strain live virus infection can sometimes cause serious complications in vaccinated persons and vaccine strain live viruses can be shed and transmitted to others with serious or even fatal consequences

Censored Study of Vaccinated vs. Unvaccinated sees Daylight
by James O. Grundvig
The study defined NDD as “Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and/or a learning disability.”
The Study Accepted, Released, Censored
Frontiers Journal received the study on September 17, 2016. After a two-month peer review process, published it on November 21 for its “68,000 on board editors” from institutions around the world (www.frontiersin.org), with the National Institute of Health (NIH) and Harvard University being the top two providing the science editors.
Over the course of four days, more than 80,000 views of the study found it important enough to read, going “viral” according to one familiar with its release. Then on November 28, the bottom fell out when Frontiers scrapped the publication. In one week, it went from being accepted, published, and then retracted. The abstract can still be found online.
The paper, however, wasn’t retracted; it was “unaccepted,” according to Mawson via email. That means Frontiers didn’t retract it, since it was never officially published. What’s left for a study after its accepted, reviewed 80,000 times in less than 100 hours? . . . Censorship.
Beyond that clarification, Mawson wrote: “I am not allowed to comment on the paper/work by my Dean.”
Melissa Cochrane, the communications manager for Frontiers Journal, which is headquartered in Lausanne, Switzerland, replied via email:
“As we have previously noted, this article was provisionally accepted but not published. In response to concerns raised regarding the abstract and the provisional PDF — which were made provisionally available online — Frontiers then reopened its review. Following further manuscript assessment by the Field Chief Editor of Frontiers in Public Health, in consultation with an external expert, the manuscript was subsequently rejected, not retracted as retraction can only occur once a paper has been officially published and indexed.
“The rejection was due to severe limitations in the validity of the results.”
A day later, Ms. Cochrane replied to an email seeking clarification on the “rejection” process, writing:
“The reasons for the rejection were communicated in more detail to the corresponding author but I am unable to give you the reviewer’s comments as the Frontiers’ review process involves an open and collaborative dialogue between the reviewers and the authors, all of whom participate with the understanding and security that Frontiers will keep these exchanges confidential, as explained in our terms of use. You can read more about the Frontiers peer review process here.”
Vaccines Cause Health Issues Big and Small

Metals Debris Found in Vaccine Supply
Robert F. Kennedy, Jr.
A landmark new study has found metal debris and biological contamination in every human vaccine tested. The study should have profound and immediate impact on public health policies and vaccine industry procedures around the globe.
A team of scientists used a highly sensitive technology—an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with an x-ray microprobe—to scan for solid contaminants in 44 samples of 30 vaccines. The researchers reported their results in the International Journal of Vaccines and Vaccination. They found widespread contamination by toxic aluminum salts, red blood cells of unknown origin and inorganic, foreign particle debris in aggregates, clusters and independent particulates. The composition of those clusters, the researchers observe, are consistent with “burnt waste.”

Study – New Quality-Control Investigations on Vaccines: Micro-and Nanocontamination
International Journal of Vaccines and Vaccination
Abstract
Vaccines  are  being  under  investigation  for  the  possible  side  effects  they  can cause. In order to supply new information, an electron-microscopy investigation method was applied to the study of vaccines, aimed at verifying the presence of solid contaminants by means of an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope equipped  with  an  X-ray  microprobe.  The  results  of  this  new  investigation  show the presence of micro- and nanosized particulate matter composed of inorganic elements in vaccines’ samples which is not declared among the components and whose unduly presence is, for the time being, inexplicable. A considerable part of  those  particulate  contaminants  have  already  been  verified  in  other  matrices and  reported  in  literature  as  non  biodegradable  and  non  biocompatible.  The evidence  collected  is  suggestive  of  some  hypotheses  correlated  to  diseases  that are mentioned and briefly discussed.

Vaccine News – Dr. Suzanne Humphries, M.D. – Vaccine Strain of Measles Virus Found in Measles

Dirty Vaccines: Every Human Vaccine Tested Was Contaminated With Metals and Debris in New Study
Researchers examining 44 samples of 30 different vaccines found dangerous contaminants, including red blood cells in one vaccine and metal toxicants in every single sample tested – except in one animal vaccine.
Using extremely sensitive new technologies not used in vaccine manufacturing, Italian scientists reported they were “baffled” by their discoveries which included single particles and aggregates of organic debris including red cells of human or possibly animal origin and metals including lead, tungsten, gold, and chromium, that have been linked to autoimmune disease and leukemia.
In the study, published this week in the International Journal of Vaccines and Vaccination, the researchers led by Antoinetta Gatti, of the National Council of Research of Italy and the Scientific Director of Nanodiagnostics, say their results “show the presence of micro- and nano-sized particulate matter composed of inorganic elements in vaccine samples” not declared in the products’ ingredients lists.
Lead particles were found in the cervical cancer vaccines, Gardasil and Cevarix, for example, and in the seasonal flu vaccine Aggripal manufactured by Novartis as well as in the Meningetec vaccine meant to protect against meningitis C.
Samples of an infant vaccine called Infarix Hexa (against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis and haemophilus influenzae type B) manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline was found to contain stainless steel, tungsten and a gold-zinc aggregate.
Other metal contaminants included platinum, silver, bismuth, iron, and chromium. Chromium (alone or in alloy with iron and nickel) was identified in 25 of the human vaccines from Italy and France that were tested.
GSK’s Fluarix vaccine for children three years and older contained 11 metals and aggregates of metals. Similar aggregates to those identified in the vaccines have been shown to be prevalent in cases of leukemia, the researchers noted.
Many of the vaccines contained iron and iron alloys which, according to the researchers, “can corrode and the corrosion products exert a toxicity affecting the tissues”.
The researchers supply an image of an area in a drop of Sanofi Pasteur MSD’s Repevax (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio) vaccine “where the morphology of red cells – we cannot tell whether they are human or animal- is clearly visible” along with the presence of “debris” composed of aluminum, bromine, silicon, potassium and titanium.
Feligen, the only veterinary vaccine tested in the 44 total vaccines sampled, proved to be the only sample free from inorganic contamination.

Dirty Vaccines: New Study Reveals Prevalence of Contaminants
Posted by Celeste McGovern on Jan 30, 2017 5:31:20 PM
Every Human Vaccine Tested Was Contaminated by Unsafe Levels of Metals and Debris Linked to Cancer and Autoimmune Disease, New Study Reports
Researchers examining 44 samples of 30 different vaccines found dangerous contaminants, including red blood cells in one vaccine and metal toxicants in every single sample tested – except in one animal vaccine.
Using extremely sensitive new technologies not used in vaccine manufacturing, Italian scientists reported they were “baffled” by their discoveries which included single particles and aggregates of organic debris including red cells of human or possibly animal origin and metals including lead, tungsten, gold, and chromium, that have been linked to autoimmune disease and leukemia.
In the study, published this week in the International Journal of Vaccines and Vaccination, the researchers led by Antonietta Gatti, of the National Council of Research of Italy and the Scientific Director of Nanodiagnostics, say their results “show the presence of micro- and nano-sized particulate matter composed of inorganic elements in vaccine samples” not declared in the products’ ingredients lists.
Lead particles were found in the cervical cancer vaccines, Gardasil and Cervarix, for example, and in the seasonal flu vaccine Aggripal manufactured by Novartis as well as in the Meningetec vaccine meant to protect against meningitis C.
Samples of an infant vaccine called Infarix Hexa (against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis and haemophilus influenzae type B) manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline was found to contain stainless steel, tungsten and a gold-zinc aggregate.

PDF source: http://medcraveonline.com/IJVV/IJVV-04-00072.pdf
Study – New Quality-Control Investigations on Vaccines: Micro-and Nanocontamination
International Journal of Vaccines and Vaccination
Abstract
Vaccines  are  being  under  investigation  for  the  possible  side  effects  they  can cause. In order to supply new information, an electron-microscopy investigation method was applied to the study of vaccines, aimed at verifying the presence of solid contaminants by means of an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope equipped  with  an  X-ray  microprobe.  The  results  of  this  new  investigation  show the presence of micro- and nanosized particulate matter composed of inorganic elements in vaccines’ samples which is not declared among the components and whose unduly presence is, for the time being, inexplicable. A considerable part of  those  particulate  contaminants  have  already  been  verified  in  other  matrices and  reported  in  literature  as  non  biodegradable  and  non  biocompatible.  The evidence  collected  is  suggestive  of  some  hypotheses  correlated  to  diseases  that are mentioned and briefly discussed.

Parents of children with autistic spectrum disorder report extreme fatigue
Pamela Cowan, Regina Leader-Post
Published on: January 13, 2017
For more than two years, Sarah Elizabeth Ivens was fascinated to work one-on-one with children who have autism spectrum disorder.
“It’s amazing how the mind can work differently,” she said.
As she got to know the childrens’ families, Ivens was struck by the many challenges they juggled and their high level of fatigue.
“Fatigue is a sense of exhaustion that cannot be resolved by getting rest,” she said. “It’s not just being tired. If you’re tired, then you can go to bed early, sleep in and the next day you’re feeling better. That’s not the case with fatigue.”
Fatigue impacts a person’s physical and mental capacities.
Ivens completed her honours degree in psychology at the University of Victoria, and is now a PhD student in clinical psychology at the University of Regina.
Her Victoria experience spurred her to take a closer look at parents’ experiences for her master’s thesis, titled Fatigue in parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The role of parental and child factors for mothers and fathers.
“We do know from other research that fatigue is problematic for parents in general and that it can really have a big impact on their well-being and their child rearing, which results in less-effective parenting,” Ivens said.
Past research focused on mothers. For her thesis, Ivens surveyed 112 parents of children with autism between the ages of two and 12 years, with the average age being seven.
“The kids had been diagnosed three years prior, so this was not families going through the transition of learning to deal with the diagnosis,” Ivens said. “These were parents who were doing it for a few years.”
Of those answering the online questionnaires for her 2015 study, 78 were mothers and 34 were fathers.
Getting dads involved was important. In many studies, only 10 per cent are fathers, she said.
“I think their answers and experiences are really getting lost in the noise,” Ivens said.
According to existing literature, mothers report being more fatigued than fathers, the 31-year-old said.
Her survey echoed that finding.

Merck Created Hit List to “Destroy,” “Neutralize” or “Discredit” Dissenting Doctors
By Jim Edwards May 6, 2009
Merck made a “hit list” of doctors who criticized Vioxx, according to testimony in a Vioxx class action case in Australia. The list, emailed between Merck employees, contained doctors’ names with the labels “neutralise,” “neutralised” or “discredit” next to them.
According to The Australian, Merck emails from 1999 showed company execs complaining about doctors who disliked using Vioxx. One email said:
We may need to seek them out and destroy them where they live …
The plaintiffs’ lawyer gave this assessment:
It gives you the dark side of the use of key opinion leaders and thought leaders … if (they) say things you don’t like to hear, you have to neutralise them … It does suggest a certain culture within the organisation about how to deal with your opponents and those who disagree with you.
The Australian:
The court was told that James Fries, professor of medicine at Stanford University, wrote to the then Merck head Ray Gilmartin in October 2000 to complain about the treatment of some of his researchers who had criticised the drug.
“Even worse were allegations of Merck damage control by intimidation,” he wrote, … “This has happened to at least eight (clinical) investigators … I suppose I was mildly threatened myself but I never have spoken or written on these issues.”
The allegations come on the heels of revelations that Merck created a fake medical journal — the Australasian Journal of Bone and Joint Medicine — in which to publish studies about Vioxx; had pop songs commissioned about Vioxx to inspire its staff, and paid ghostwriters to draft articles about the drug.

New Merck Allegations: A Fake Journal; Ghostwritten Studies; Vioxx Pop Songs; PR Execs Harass Reporters
By Jim Edwards April 23, 2009
Federal prosecutors in the U.S. will be reading with amusement the Australian press’s coverage of a class action trial down under for patients who took Merck’s now-withdrawn painkiller Vioxx.
Details emerging in Oz make some of the antics that Merck’s American counterparts got up to look tame by comparison. For example, in Australia, Merck allegedly:
Had a doctor sign his name to an entirely ghostwritten journal article even though a Merck staffer had complained that the data within it was based on “wishful thinking.”
Created a fake “peer-reviewed” journal, the “Australasian Journal of Bone and Joint Medicine,” in which to publicize pro-Vioxx articles.
Created a Ricky Martin-style pop song to get Merck sales reps all jazzed up about Vioxx (lyrics below!).
During the trial, Merck has employed an unusually aggressive set of PR consultants, some of whom have even followed reporters into the bathroom to make sure they got the story “right.”
Hatched a Blackadder-style “cunning plan” to seed seminars with speakers who were sympathetic to Vioxx but under instructions not to mention the brand name too often.
Regarding the “wishful thinking” study, The Age reports on these emails turned over in the trial:
Email from Merck senior researcher Briggs Morrison, August 2001:
“That seems wishful thinking, not a critical interpretation of the data … The data appears to have been interpreted to support a preconceived hypothesis.”
The claim was nonetheless included in the final version of the article, which Merck employees sent to US cardiologist Dr Marv Konstam for approval.
Dr Konstam was named as the article’s lead author when it was published in the medical journal Circulation in October 2001
The Australian describes the fake journal. And The Age notes that the journal was “designed to resemble a peer-reviewed publication and reprinted previously published articles.”

Merck target of Vioxx federal grand jury probe
Mon Mar 23, 2009
Merck & Co said on Monday that it has been advised it is a target of a U.S. grand jury investigation involving its withdrawn pain drug Vioxx.
The company had previously disclosed the government probe, which has been ongoing since 2004. But it only last week received a letter from the U.S. Attorney’s office for the District of Massachusetts informing the drugmaker it is a target of the grand jury investigation, Merck said.
The probe involves Merck’s research, marketing and selling activities regarding Vioxx, the once $2.5 billion a year drug that was pulled from the market in September 2004 after a study showed it doubled the risk of heart attack and stroke in long-term users.
Merck said it has responded and will continue to respond to requests from the U.S. Attorney for documents and information in connection with the probe. The investigation includes subpoenas for witnesses to appear before a grand jury, the company has said in securities filings.
The New Jersey-based drugmaker was sued by tens of thousands of former Vioxx users who claimed to have been injured by the arthritis medicine.
After winning the majority of product liability trials that reached a jury, Merck agreed to pay $4.85 billion to settle personal injury claims from former users who had suffered heart attacks and strokes.

Study – Investigating Viruses in Cells Used to Make Vaccines; and Evaluating the Potential Threat Posed by Transmission of Viruses to Humans
Principal Investigator: Arifa S. Khan, PhD
General Overview
The emergence of pathogenic virus infections like influenza and HIV have created an urgent need for new vaccines.
Virus-based vaccines are made in living cells (cell substrates). Some manufacturers are investigating the use of new cell lines to make vaccines. The continual growth of cell lines ensures that there is a consistent supply of the same cells that can yield high quantities of the vaccine.
In some cases the cell lines that are used might be tumorigenic, that is, they form tumors when injected into rodents. Some of these tumor-forming cell lines may contain cancer-causing viruses that are not actively reproducing. Such viruses are hard to detect using standard methods. These latent, or “quiet,” viruses pose a potential threat, since they might become active under vaccine manufacturing conditions. Therefore, to ensure the safety of vaccines, our laboratory is investigating ways to activate latent viruses in cell lines and to detect the activated viruses, as well as other unknown viruses, using new technologies. We will then adapt our findings to detect viruses in the same types of cell substrates that are used to produce vaccines. We are also trying to identify specific biological processes that reflect virus activity.
These methods will enable FDA scientists to help manufacturers to determine whether their specific cell substrate is safe to use for vaccine production. The methods our laboratory are developing and testing will help to ensure the production of safe and effective vaccines in two ways: 1) FDA will be able to develop testing guidelines for manufacturers who use new cell substrates for producing vaccines; and 2) FDA will publish the new methods it develops in peer-reviewed scientific journals, thus making them readily accessible to all manufacturers.
We are also evaluating the risk of retrovirus infections in humans. (Retroviruses are RNA viruses that use an enzyme called reverse transcriptase (RT) to replicate; RNA is the de-coded form of DNA). Simian foamy virus (SFV) can be transmitted from nonhuman primates (e.g., monkeys) to humans. Although there is no evidence that SFV causes disease, the virus can remain in a lifelong quiet state in the DNA after infection. Moreover, two individuals in Africa were recently found to be infected with both HIV-1 and SFV. Therefore, it is important to determine if SFV poses a threat to human health and to understand how the virus spreads in order to create strategies for controlling human infections. Such work will also help FDA to develop a new policy regarding blood donation by individuals working with nonhuman primates and implementing formal safety guidelines for people working with SFV-infected animals. We are also investigating the consequences of dual SFV and HIV-1 infection in the monkey model.

#RFKcommission – Great video! Dartmouth-educated and Portland, OR-based Pediatrician Dr. Paul Thomas responds to Dr. Peter Hotez’s ridiculous Op-Ed in the NY Times trying to talk President Trump out of having a Vaccine Safety Commission. Oregon proud!

Dr. Suzanne Humphries, M.D. – Vaccine Strain of Measles Virus Found in Measles Outbreaks
February 21, 2017
Health Impact News Editor Comments
Dr. Suzanne Humphries is a practicing nephrologist (kidney physician). In this lecture (video below), she addresses a study done in Croatia [1] where a child who was vaccinated with the MMR vaccine was tested positive for the measles vaccine strain Schwarz eight days after vaccination.
This was a significant finding, because the child’s symptoms were thought to be similar to rubella, and without testing, the sickness would have been possibly mis-diagnosed as rubella, or the wild-type strain of measles the vaccine is designed to protect against.
This concept of “shedding,” where the child comes down with the disease from the virus in the vaccine itself, surprised the researchers:
Virus excretion in vaccinees has been reported before, but to our knowledge, this is documented for the first time for the Schwarz vaccine strain. [1]
Since 2010, this phenomena of vaccine shedding with measles in the MMR vaccine has been observed in at least two other studies:
Differentiating the wild from the attenuated during a measles outbreak. Paediatrcis and Child Health, 2012:
In the midst of a local measles outbreak, a recently immunized child was investigated for a new-onset measles-type rash. Nucleic acid testing identified that a vaccine-type measles virus was being shed in the urine. Clinically differentiating measles from a nonmeasles rash is challenging, but can be supported by a thorough medical history evaluation. Rashes are expected to occur after immunization; nucleic acid testing can be used when it is difficult to differentiate between wild and attenuated strains. [2]
Case of vaccine-associated measles five weeks post-immunisation, British Columbia, Canada, Eurosurveillance, 2013:
We describe a case of vaccine-associated measles in a two-year-old patient from British Columbia, Canada, in October 2013, who received her first dose of measles-containing vaccine 37 days prior to onset of prodromal symptoms. Identification of this delayed vaccine-associated case occurred in the context of an outbreak investigation of a measles cluster. [3]
Are health officials testing cases of measles in the current outbreak in the United States, to determine if the measles strain is the wild strain of the vaccine strain?
Not likely, and it is not likely that the mainstream media “TV doctors” will even discuss this as they falsely vilify parents who choose not to administer the MMR vaccine to their children as the cause of these outbreaks. Some of these cases are confirmed to be among those who have received the MMR vaccine, and for those who have not been vaccinated, is it possible they were infected from those recently vaccinated when the vaccine was still “shedding,” and that the vaccine-strain of measles was passed on from the vaccinated child to the unvaccinated child?

Natural News – CDC’s admission that this year’s flu shot contains the wrong strain – 2014

by Mike Adams, the Health Ranger
(NaturalNews) The following video from Gary Franchi of NextNewsNetwork reveals the shocking admission by the CDC that this year’s flu vaccine doesn’t work.
As this story has gone extremely viral, I’ve also added these additional links to other news stories that report on the CDC’s admission that this year’s flu shot contains the wrong strain:

Huffington Post: “Flu Vaccine Doesn’t Protect Against This Season’s Most Dominant Strain”
The Seattle Times: “Vaccine problems may signal rocky flu season” – “New evidence shows that FluMist and seasonal shots likely won’t protect very well against this year’s flu viruses…”
ABC News: “Flu vaccine may not be effective for this year’s strains, CDC says”
Freedom Outpost: “CDC Health Advisory: Get Your Flu Shot. It “Might” Work This Year. Sort Of”