US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – Jan 2009
Study – Do childhood vaccines cause thrombocytopenia?
Laura J Sauvé, MD MPH and David Scheifele, MD
Vaccine Evaluation Centre, BC Children’s Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia
Correspondence: Dr Laura Sauvé, Vaccine Evaluation Centre, Shaughnessy Site, Room L427, 4500 Oak Street, Vancouver, British Columbia
An increasing body of evidence has been gathered since the mid-1960s to support a link between vaccinations, particularly the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The incidence rate is estimated to be between one in 25,000 to one in 40,000 doses of MMR (1,2); this is much less frequent than after natural infection with measles (common), rubella (one in 3000 cases) and varicella. The purpose of the present commentary is to review vaccine-associated thrombocytopenia (VATP).
Vaccine-preventable diseases are becoming rare in Canada, with an average of 10 reported cases of measles per year between 2002 and 2006; although there was a large outbreak in Quebec in 2007, with 95 confirmed cases (3). With widespread vaccination and the near disappearance of vaccine-preventable diseases in Canada, there is less societal tolerance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI). One of the challenges in assessing AEFIs is distinguishing events that are causally linked with vaccination from those that are only temporally associated. Cases of thrombocytopenia in the first month after vaccination often have a history of recent viral infection or coadministration of medications that may also lead to thrombocytopenia, making the actual cause of VATP difficult to identify.
Since 1992, the Immunization Monitoring Program, ACTive (IMPACT), conducted by the Canadian Paediatric Society, has performed active surveillance for children who are hospitalized with AEFIs, including VATP. Trained nurse monitors at each of the 12 IMPACT centres review all admissions for children admitted for VATP (children with a platelet count of less than 100×109/L and no obvious other cause, such as cancer chemotherapy) within one month of documented receipt of any vaccine. Jadavji et al (4) reported on the first nine years of surveillance (with 61 cases) for VATP in 2003. One of the limitations in the IMPACT data is that detecting a case requires the treating physician to document administration of a vaccine in the previous month (the nurse monitors do not interview the parents). A recent American study (1) found that treating physicians had asked only two of 13 children with VATP about recent vaccination.
The IMPACT data on VATP are similar to reports from other countries, including the United Kingdom, France and the United States (1,2,5,6). In Canada, 103 cases of VATP have been documented by IMPACT since 1992 (7). The median age was 13 months, and 61% of those affected were boys. Petechial rash and bruising were the typical presenting signs. Most (73%) cases were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin. Most children did quite well, with rapid recovery; only six of 95 children with follow-up data still had abnormal platelet counts after three months. However, two children had severe bleeding-related complications, one had a gastrointestinal bleed requiring intensive care and one had post-traumatic intracranial bleeding leading to death.
Most cases of VATP are associated with MMR or measles vaccine, including 72% of the cases reported to IMPACT (25 of these 74 children had received one or more additional vaccines, including 10 children who also received the diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus vaccine, and 10 children who had received the varicella vaccine). Of the children who had MMR associated with thrombocytopenia in the IMPACT study, nine (12%) had a previous recorded dose of the vaccine without known thrombocytopenia. When all of the VATP cases were considered, 31% of the VATP episodes occurred after the second or third exposure to a vaccine.
US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – Sep 2011
The infant mortality rate (IMR) is one of the most important indicators of the socio-economic well-being and public health conditions of a country. The US childhood immunization schedule specifies 26 vaccine doses for infants aged less than 1 year—the most in the world—yet 33 nations have lower IMRs. Using linear regression, the immunization schedules of these 34 nations were examined and a correlation coefficient of r = 0.70 (p < 0.0001) was found between IMRs and the number of vaccine doses routinely given to infants. Nations were also grouped into five different vaccine dose ranges: 12–14, 15–17, 18–20, 21–23, and 24–26. The mean IMRs of all nations within each group were then calculated. Linear regression analysis of unweighted mean IMRs showed a high statistically significant correlation between increasing number of vaccine doses and increasing infant mortality rates, with r = 0.992 (p = 0.0009). Using the Tukey-Kramer test, statistically significant differences in mean IMRs were found between nations giving 12–14 vaccine doses and those giving 21–23, and 24–26 doses. A closer inspection of correlations between vaccine doses, biochemical or synergistic toxicity, and IMRs is essential.
A buried JAMA study from almost a decade ago which showed that there was no improvement in mortality rates among senior citizens with a flu vaccine, even after greatly increased vaccination rates. The study “got little attention,” she says, “because the science came down on the wrong side.” Whereas the researchers had set out to prove that the push for massive flu vaccination would save the world, the researchers were “astonished” to find that the data did not support their presupposition at all. The data actually shows that deaths increased, not decreased, among seniors following vaccination.
Johns Hopkins scientist, Peter Doshi, Ph.D., issued a report in the prestigious British Medical Journal, according to NewsLI, asserting that the CDC policy of routinely recommending the flu vaccine is being based on “low quality studies that do not substantiate claims.” He says there is no evidence that the vaccine reduces deaths among senior citizens. Interestingly, Doshi cites an Australian study which found significant risks for children as well, stating that “one in every 110 children under the age of five had convulsions following vaccinations in 2009 for H1N1 influenza.”
During the drug trials for the Fluzone flu vaccine, 23 seniors out of 3,833 died after receiving the shot, according to the drug’s package insert, reported by Health Impact News. Another 226 experienced “serious adverse effects.” The manufacturer denies any connection between the deaths and the flu vaccine.
JAMA internal medicine – 14 Feb 2005
Lone Simonsen, PhD; Thomas A. Reichert, MD, PhD; Cecile Viboud, PhD;
Background Observational studies report that influenza vaccination reduces winter mortality risk from any cause by 50% among the elderly. Influenza vaccination coverage among elderly persons (≥65 years) in the United States increased from between 15% and 20% before 1980 to 65% in 2001. Unexpectedly, estimates of influenza-related mortality in this age group also increased during this period. We tried to reconcile these conflicting findings by adjusting excess mortality estimates for aging and increased circulation of influenza A(H3N2) viruses.
Methods We used a cyclical regression model to generate seasonal estimates of national influenza-related mortality (excess mortality) among the elderly in both pneumonia and influenza and all-cause deaths for the 33 seasons from 1968 to 2001. We stratified the data by 5-year age group and separated seasons dominated by A(H3N2) viruses from other seasons.
Results For people aged 65 to 74 years, excess mortality rates in A(H3N2)-dominated seasons fell between 1968 and the early 1980s but remained approximately constant thereafter. For persons 85 years or older, the mortality rate remained flat throughout. Excess mortality in A(H1N1) and B seasons did not change. All-cause excess mortality for persons 65 years or older never exceeded 10% of all winter deaths.
Conclusions We attribute the decline in influenza-related mortality among people aged 65 to 74 years in the decade after the 1968 pandemic to the acquisition of immunity to the emerging A(H3N2) virus. We could not correlate increasing vaccination coverage after 1980 with declining mortality rates in any age group. Because fewer than 10% of all winter deaths were attributable to influenza in any season, we conclude that observational studies substantially overestimate vaccination benefit.
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Testimony by Phil Robertson from Duck Dynasty
1 Corinthians 15 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand;
2 by which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain.
3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures;
4 and that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:
Hebrews 6 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Therefore leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection; not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of faith toward God,
2 of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment.
3 And this will we do, if God permit.
4 For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost,
5 and have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come,
6 if they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame.
7 For the earth which drinketh in the rain that cometh oft upon it, and bringeth forth herbs meet for them by whom it is dressed, receiveth blessing from God:
8 but that which beareth thorns and briers is rejected, and is nigh unto cursing; whose end is to be burned.