Vaccine News – VAXXED TV – No more vaccinations for my family & Study – Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity in humans and animals, vaccine adjuvants, and autoimmunity

International journal of science – 05.Sep.2013

Study – Topoisomerases facilitate transcription of long genes linked to autism

Abstract
Topoisomerases are expressed throughout the developing and adult brain and are mutated in some individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, how topoisomerases are mechanistically connected to ASD is unknown. Here we find that topotecan, a topoisomerase 1 (TOP1) inhibitor, dose-dependently reduces the expression of extremely long genes in mouse and human neurons, including nearly all genes that are longer than 200 kilobases. Expression of long genes is also reduced after knockdown of Top1 or Top2b in neurons, highlighting that both enzymes are required for full expression of long genes. By mapping RNA polymerase II density genome-wide in neurons, we found that this length-dependent effect on gene expression was due to impaired transcription elongation. Interestingly, many high-confidence ASD candidate genes are exceptionally long and were reduced in expression after TOP1 inhibition. Our findings suggest that chemicals and genetic mutations that impair topoisomerases could commonly contribute to ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

Immunologic research – Jul.2013

Study – Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity in humans and animals, vaccine adjuvants, and autoimmunity

Authors and affiliations
C. A. Shaw – 1,2,3
L. Tomljenovic – 1
1.Neural Dynamics Research Group, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual SciencesUniversity of British Columbia (UBC)VancouverCanada
2.Program in Experimental MedicineUniversity of British Columbia (UBC)VancouverCanada
3.Program in NeuroscienceUniversity of British Columbia (UBC)VancouverCanada

Abstract
We have examined the neurotoxicity of aluminum in humans and animals under various conditions, following different routes of administration, and provide an overview of the various associated disease states. The literature demonstrates clearly negative impacts of aluminum on the nervous system across the age span. In adults, aluminum exposure can lead to apparently age-related neurological deficits resembling Alzheimer’s and has been linked to this disease and to the Guamanian variant, ALS–PDC. Similar outcomes have been found in animal models. In addition, injection of aluminum adjuvants in an attempt to model Gulf War syndrome and associated neurological deficits leads to an ALS phenotype in young male mice. In young children, a highly significant correlation exists between the number of pediatric aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines administered and the rate of autism spectrum disorders. Many of the features of aluminum-induced neurotoxicity may arise, in part, from autoimmune reactions, as part of the ASIA syndrome.

US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – Jun 2014

Study – Transcriptomic analyses of neurotoxic effects in mouse brain after intermittent neonatal administration of thimerosal.

Li X, Qu F, Xie W, Wang F, Liu H, Song S, Chen T, Zhang Y, Zhu S, Wang Y, Guo C, Tang TS.
Author information
State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

Abstract
Thimerosal is a vaccine antimicrobial preservative which has long been suspected an iatrogenic factor possibly contributing to neurodevelopmental disorders including autism. The association between infant vaccine thimerosal exposure and autism remains an open question. Although thimerosal has been removed from mandatory childhood vaccines in the United States, thimerosal-preserved vaccines are still widely used outside of the United States especially in developing countries. Notably, thimerosal-containing vaccines are being given to the newborns within the first 12-24 h after birth in some countries. To examine the possible neurotoxic effects of early neonatal exposure to a higher level of thimerosal, FVB mice were subcutaneously injected with thimerosal-mercury at a dose which is 20× higher than that used for regular Chinese infant immunization during the first 4 months of life. Thimerosal-treated mice exhibited neural development delay, social interaction deficiency, and inclination of depression. Apparent neuropathological changes were also observed in adult mice neonatally treated with thimerosal. High-throughput RNA sequencing of autistic-behaved mice brains revealed the alternation of a number of canonical pathways involving neuronal development, neuronal synaptic function, and the dysregulation of endocrine system. Intriguingly, the elevation of anterior pituitary secreting hormones occurred exclusively in male but not in female thimerosal-treated mice, demonstrating for the first time the gender bias of thimerosal-mercury toxicity with regard to endocrine system. Our results indicate that higher dose of neonatal thimerosal-mercury (20× higher than that used in human) is capable of inducing long-lasting substantial dysregulation of neurodevelopment, synaptic function, and endocrine system, which could be the causal involvements of autistic-like behavior in mice.

VAXXED TV – Your Findings Are Only As Good As Your Data

Dental health connection

Government failure

MMR devastated my son

I refuse to vaccinate anyone

Vaxxed versus unvaxxed in my home

No more vaccinations for my family

Vaccines gave my son autism

Following Wayne!

DAD WANTED ME TO BE SURE

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ONE FOR ISRAEL Ministry – Jewish Johnathan Ben-David forgave his killer and you would not believe why!!!

How to accept Jesus Christ as your personal Saviour

Testimony by Phil Robertson from Duck Dynasty

1 Corinthians 15 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand;
2 by which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain.
3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures;
4 and that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:

Hebrews 6 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Therefore leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection; not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of faith toward God,
2 of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment.
3 And this will we do, if God permit.
4 For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost,
5 and have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come,
6 if they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame.
7 For the earth which drinketh in the rain that cometh oft upon it, and bringeth forth herbs meet for them by whom it is dressed, receiveth blessing from God:
8 but that which beareth thorns and briers is rejected, and is nigh unto cursing; whose end is to be burned.

Isaiah 53 – Old testament Prophecy about Jesus

1 Who hath believed our report? and to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed?
2 For he shall grow up before him as a tender plant,and as a root out of a dry ground:he hath no form nor comeliness;and when we shall see him,there is no beauty that we should desire him.
3 He is despised and rejected of men;a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief:and we hid as it were our faces from him;he was despised, and we esteemed him not.
4 Surely he hath borne our griefs,and carried our sorrows:yet we did esteem him stricken,smitten of God, and afflicted.
5 But he was wounded for our transgressions,he was bruised for our iniquities:the chastisement of our peace was upon him;and with his stripes we are healed.
6 All we like sheep have gone astray;we have turned every one to his own way;and the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all.
7 He was oppressed, and he was afflicted,yet he opened not his mouth:he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter,and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb,so he openeth not his mouth.
8 He was taken from prison and from judgment:and who shall declare his generation? for he was cut off out of the land of the living:for the transgression of my people was he stricken.
9 And he made his grave with the wicked,and with the rich in his death;because he had done no violence,neither was any deceit in his mouth.
10 Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him;he hath put him to grief:when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin,he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days,and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand.
11 He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied:by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many;for he shall bear their iniquities.
12 Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great,and he shall divide the spoil with the strong;because he hath poured out his soul unto death:and he was numbered with the transgressors;and he bare the sin of many,and made intercession for the transgressors.

 

Vaccine News – Study – Administration of Thimerosal to Infant Rats Increases Overflow of Glutamate and Aspartate in the Prefrontal Cortex: Protective Role of Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate & VAXXED TV – My son has autism from the MMR

US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – 2011

Study – Aluminum vaccine adjuvants: are they safe?

Tomljenovic L, Shaw CA.
Author information
Neural Dynamics Research Group, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1L8, Canada. lucijat77@gmail.com

Abstract
Aluminum is an experimentally demonstrated neurotoxin and the most commonly used vaccine adjuvant. Despite almost 90 years of widespread use of aluminum adjuvants, medical science’s understanding about their mechanisms of action is still remarkably poor. There is also a concerning scarcity of data on toxicology and pharmacokinetics of these compounds. In spite of this, the notion that aluminum in vaccines is safe appears to be widely accepted. Experimental research, however, clearly shows that aluminum adjuvants have a potential to induce serious immunological disorders in humans. In particular, aluminum in adjuvant form carries a risk for autoimmunity, long-term brain inflammation and associated neurological complications and may thus have profound and widespread adverse health consequences. In our opinion, the possibility that vaccine benefits may have been overrated and the risk of potential adverse effects underestimated, has not been rigorously evaluated in the medical and scientific community. We hope that the present paper will provide a framework for a much needed and long overdue assessment of this highly contentious medical issue.

A study published in the Journal Cell Biology and Toxicology by Kinki University in Osaka, Japan determined that in combination with the brain pathology observed in patients diagnosed with autism, the present study helps to support the possible biological plausibility for how low-dose exposure to mercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines may be associated with autism.

US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – Apr 2010

Study – Induction of metallothionein in mouse cerebellum and cerebrum with low-dose thimerosal injection.

Minami T, Miyata E, Sakamoto Y, Yamazaki H, Ichida S.
Author information
Department of Life Sciences, Kinki University, Higashi-osaka, Osaka, Japan. minamita@life.kindai.ac.jp

Abstract
Thimerosal, an ethyl mercury compound, is used worldwide as a vaccine preservative. We previously observed that the mercury concentration in mouse brains did not increase with the clinical dose of thimerosal injection, but the concentration increased in the brain after the injection of thimerosal with lipopolysaccharide, even if a low dose of thimerosal was administered. Thimerosal may penetrate the brain, but is undetectable when a clinical dose of thimerosal is injected; therefore, the induction of metallothionein (MT) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein was observed in the cerebellum and cerebrum of mice after thimerosal injection, as MT is an inducible protein. MT-1 mRNA was expressed at 6 and 9 h in both the cerebrum and cerebellum, but MT-1 mRNA expression in the cerebellum was three times higher than that in the cerebrum after the injection of 12 microg/kg thimerosal. MT-2 mRNA was not expressed until 24 h in both organs. MT-3 mRNA was expressed in the cerebellum from 6 to 15 h after the injection, but not in the cerebrum until 24 h. MT-1 and MT-3 mRNAs were expressed in the cerebellum in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, MT-1 protein was detected from 6 to 72 h in the cerebellum after 12 microg/kg of thimerosal was injected and peaked at 10 h. MT-2 was detected in the cerebellum only at 10 h. In the cerebrum, little MT-1 protein was detected at 10 and 24 h, and there were no peaks of MT-2 protein in the cerebrum. In conclusion, MT-1 and MT-3 mRNAs but not MT-2 mRNA are easily expressed in the cerebellum rather than in the cerebrum by the injection of low-dose thimerosal. It is thought that the cerebellum is a sensitive organ against thimerosal. As a result of the present findings, in combination with the brain pathology observed in patients diagnosed with autism, the present study helps to support the possible biological plausibility for how low-dose exposure to mercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines may be associated with autism.

A study published in the Journal Neurochemical Research determined that since excessive accumulation of extracellular glutamate is linked with excitotoxicity, data implies that neonatal exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccines might induce excitotoxic brain injuries, leading to neurodevelopmental disorders.

US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – Feb 2012

Study – Administration of Thimerosal to Infant Rats Increases Overflow of Glutamate and Aspartate in the Prefrontal Cortex: Protective Role of Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate

Author information
Michalina Duszczyk-Budhathoki – 1
Mieszko Olczak – 1,3
Malgorzata Lehner – 2
and
Maria Dorota Majewskacorresponding author – 1,4
1 – Marie Curie Chairs Program at the Department of Pharmacology and Physiology of the Nervous System, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, 02-957 Warsaw, Poland
2 – Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, 02-957 Warsaw, Poland
3 – Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Oczki 1 str., 02-007 Warsaw, Poland
4 – Department of Biology and Environmental Science, University of Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski, Wóycickiego Str. 1/3, 01-815 Warsaw, Poland Maria Dorota Majewska, Phone: +48-22-45-82-624, Fax: +48-22-45-82-842, Email: moc.liamg@akswejamdm

Abstract
Thimerosal, a mercury-containing vaccine preservative, is a suspected factor in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. We previously showed that its administration to infant rats causes behavioral, neurochemical and neuropathological abnormalities similar to those present in autism. Here we examined, using microdialysis, the effect of thimerosal on extracellular levels of neuroactive amino acids in the rat prefrontal cortex (PFC). Thimerosal administration (4 injections, i.m., 240 μg Hg/kg on postnatal days 7, 9, 11, 15) induced lasting changes in amino acid overflow: an increase of glutamate and aspartate accompanied by a decrease of glycine and alanine; measured 10–14 weeks after the injections. Four injections of thimerosal at a dose of 12.5 μg Hg/kg did not alter glutamate and aspartate concentrations at microdialysis time (but based on thimerosal pharmacokinetics, could have been effective soon after its injection). Application of thimerosal to the PFC in perfusion fluid evoked a rapid increase of glutamate overflow. Coadministration of the neurosteroid, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS; 80 mg/kg; i.p.) prevented the thimerosal effect on glutamate and aspartate; the steroid alone had no influence on these amino acids. Coapplication of DHEAS with thimerosal in perfusion fluid also blocked the acute action of thimerosal on glutamate. In contrast, DHEAS alone reduced overflow of glycine and alanine, somewhat potentiating the thimerosal effect on these amino acids. Since excessive accumulation of extracellular glutamate is linked with excitotoxicity, our data imply that neonatal exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccines might induce excitotoxic brain injuries, leading to neurodevelopmental disorders. DHEAS may partially protect against mercurials-induced neurotoxicity.

VAXXED TV – Vaccines gave my son seizures

I am vaccine injured and so is my son

My baby is healthy and happy all the time

I’m a dad fighting the system

4 month vaccine injured my baby

James Neuenschwander M.D

He had a lump on his leg for a year
A mother shares her observations of her son’s reactions to the vaccines given to him.
Interview recorded on May 5th, 2017 in The United Kingdom

Vit K gave my son eczema

My son has autism from the MMR

Vaccine injury testimony

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How to accept Jesus Christ as your personal Saviour

Testimony by Phil Robertson from Duck Dynasty

1 Corinthians 15 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand;
2 by which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain.
3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures;
4 and that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:

Hebrews 6 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Therefore leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection; not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of faith toward God,
2 of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment.
3 And this will we do, if God permit.
4 For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost,
5 and have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come,
6 if they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame.
7 For the earth which drinketh in the rain that cometh oft upon it, and bringeth forth herbs meet for them by whom it is dressed, receiveth blessing from God:
8 but that which beareth thorns and briers is rejected, and is nigh unto cursing; whose end is to be burned.

 

Vaccine News – Study – Thimerosal exposure in infants and neurodevelopmental disorders: an assessment of computerized medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink & VAXXED TV – My vaccinated injured family

A study published in the Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health determined that mercury exposure can induce immune, sensory, neurological, motor and behavioural dysfunctions similar to traits defining or associated with ASDs. Based upon differential diagnoses, 8 of 9 patients examined were exposed to significant mercury from Thimerosal-containing vaccine preparations during their fetal/infant developmental periods. These previously normal developing children suffered mercury encephalopathies that manifested with clinical symptoms consistent with regressive ASDs. Evidence for mercury intoxication should be considered in the differential diagnosis as contributing to some regressive ASDs.

US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – May 2007

Study – A case series of children with apparent mercury toxic encephalopathies manifesting with clinical symptoms of regressive autistic disorders

Geier DA, Geier MR.
Author information
Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.

Abstract
Impairments in social relatedness and communication, repetitive behaviors, and stereotypic abnormal movement patterns characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). It is clear that while genetic factors are important to the pathogenesis of ASDs, mercury exposure can induce immune, sensory, neurological, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions similar to traits defining or associated with ASDs. The Institutional Review Board of the Institute for Chronic Illnesses (Office for Human Research Protections, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, IRB number IRB00005375) approved the present study. A case series of nine patients who presented to the Genetic Centers of America for a genetic/developmental evaluation are discussed. Eight of nine patients (one patient was found to have an ASD due to Rett’s syndrome) (a) had regressive ASDs; (b) had elevated levels of androgens; (c) excreted significant amounts of mercury post chelation challenge; (d) had biochemical evidence of decreased function in their glutathione pathways; (e) had no known significant mercury exposure except from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho(D)-immune globulin preparations; and (f) had alternate causes for their regressive ASDs ruled out. There was a significant dose-response relationship between the severity of the regressive ASDs observed and the total mercury dose children received from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho (D)-immune globulin preparations. Based upon differential diagnoses, 8 of 9 patients examined were exposed to significant mercury from Thimerosal-containing biologic/vaccine preparations during their fetal/infant developmental periods, and subsequently, between 12 and 24 mo of age, these previously normally developing children suffered mercury toxic encephalopathies that manifested with clinical symptoms consistent with regressive ASDs. Evidence for mercury intoxication should be considered in the differential diagnosis as contributing to some regressive ASDs.

A study conducted by the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at University of Pittsburgh’s School of Medicine showed that Macaques are commonly used in pre-clinical vaccine safety testing. Collective Evolution does not support animals testing, we feel there is a large amount of evidence and research that already indicated the links to vaccines in which some animals have been used to illustrate. The objective of this study was to compare early infant cognition and behaviour with amygdala size and opioid binding in rhesus macaques receiving the recommended childhood vaccines. The animal model, which examines for the first time, behavioural, functional and neuromorphometric consequences of the childhood vaccine regimen, mimics certain neurological abnormalities of autism. These findings raise important safety issues while providing a potential model for examining aspects of causation and disease pathogenesis in acquired disorders of behaviour and development.

Neurobiologiae experimentalis – 2010

Study – Influence of pediatric vaccines on amygdala growth and opioid ligand binding in rhesus macaque infants: A pilot study

Author information
Laura Hewitson – 1,2,*, Brian J. Lopresti – 3, Carol Stott – 4, N. Scott Mason – 3 and Jaime Tomko – 1
1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA;
2 Thoughtful House Center for Children, Austin, TX, USA;
3 Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA;
4 Independent Chartered Scientist, Cambridge, UK;

Abstract
This longitudinal, case-control pilot study examined amygdala growth in rhesus macaque infants receiving the complete US childhood vaccine schedule (1994-1999). Longitudinal structural and functional neuroimaging was undertaken to examine central effects of the vaccine regimen on the developing brain. Vaccine-exposed and saline-injected control infants underwent MRI and PET imaging at approximately 4 and 6 months of age, representing two specific timeframes within the vaccination schedule. Volumetric analyses showed that exposed animals did not undergo the maturational changes over time in amygdala volume that was observed in unexposed animals. After controlling for left amygdala volume, the binding of the opioid antagonist [11C]diprenorphine (DPN) in exposed animals remained relatively constant over time, compared with unexposed animals, in which a significant decrease in [11C]DPN binding occurred. These results suggest that maturational changes in amygdala volume and the binding capacity of [11C]DPN in the amygdala was significantly altered in infant macaques receiving the vaccine schedule. The macaque infant is a relevant animal model in which to investigate specific environmental exposures and structural/functional neuroimaging during neurodevelopment.

A study conducted by The George Washington University School of Public Health from the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics determined that significantly increased rate ratios were observed for autism and autism spectrum disorders as a result of exposure to mercury from Thimerosal-containing vaccines.

US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – Aug 2008

Study – Thimerosal exposure in infants and neurodevelopmental disorders: an assessment of computerized medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink

Young HA, Geier DA, Geier MR.
Author information
The George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, United States.

Abstract
The study evaluated possible associations between neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) and exposure to mercury (Hg) from Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) by examining the automated Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD). A total of 278,624 subjects were identified in birth cohorts from 1990-1996 that had received their first oral polio vaccination by 3 months of age in the VSD. The birth cohort prevalence rate of medically diagnosed International Classification of Disease, 9th revision (ICD-9) specific NDs and control outcomes were calculated. Exposures to Hg from TCVs were calculated by birth cohort for specific exposure windows from birth-7 months and birth-13 months of age. Poisson regression analysis was used to model the association between the prevalence of outcomes and Hg doses from TCVs. Consistent significantly increased rate ratios were observed for autism, autism spectrum disorders, tics, attention deficit disorder, and emotional disturbances with Hg exposure from TCVs. By contrast, none of the control outcomes had significantly increased rate ratios with Hg exposure from TCVs. Routine childhood vaccination should be continued to help reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases, but efforts should be undertaken to remove Hg from vaccines. Additional studies should be conducted to further evaluate the relationship between Hg exposure and NDs.

 

 

 

VAXXED TV – My Vaxxed child versus my unvaccinated child

My super healthy unvaccinated Children

 

 

Hep B and vit K made my baby sick

 

My vaccinated injured family

Vaxxed versus unvaccinated in my family

My children are unvaccinated and perfect

My unvaccinated healthy girl

I did not vaccinate my adopted children

We will never vaccinate again

Tidal wave of vaccine injury

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How to accept Jesus Christ as your personal Saviour

Testimony by Phil Robertson from Duck Dynasty

1 Corinthians 15 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand;
2 by which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain.
3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures;
4 and that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:

Hebrews 6 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Therefore leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection; not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of faith toward God,
2 of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment.
3 And this will we do, if God permit.
4 For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost,
5 and have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come,
6 if they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame.
7 For the earth which drinketh in the rain that cometh oft upon it, and bringeth forth herbs meet for them by whom it is dressed, receiveth blessing from God:
8 but that which beareth thorns and briers is rejected, and is nigh unto cursing; whose end is to be burned.

 

Vaccine News – Study – Thimerosal neurotoxicity is associated with glutathione depletion: protection with glutathione precursors & VAXXED TV – Vaxxed versus unvaccinated in my family

A study conducted by the Department of Paediatrics at the University of Arkansas determined that thimerosal-induced cytotoxicity was associated with the depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) in both cell lines. The study outlines how many vaccines have been neurotoxic, especially to the developing brain. Depletion of GSH is commonly associated with autism. Although thimerosal has been removed from most children’s vaccines, it is still present in flu vaccines given to pregnant women, the elderly and to children in developing countries.

US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – 2005

Study – Thimerosal neurotoxicity is associated with glutathione depletion: protection with glutathione precursors.

James SJ, Slikker W 3rd, Melnyk S, New E, Pogribna M, Jernigan S.
Author information
Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Arkansas Children’s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA. jamesjill@uams.edu

Abstract
Thimerosol is an antiseptic containing 49.5% ethyl mercury that has been used for years as a preservative in many infant vaccines and in flu vaccines. Environmental methyl mercury has been shown to be highly neurotoxic, especially to the developing brain. Because mercury has a high affinity for thiol (sulfhydryl (-SH)) groups, the thiol-containing antioxidant, glutathione (GSH), provides the major intracellular defense against mercury-induced neurotoxicity. Cultured neuroblastoma cells were found to have lower levels of GSH and increased sensitivity to thimerosol toxicity compared to glioblastoma cells that have higher basal levels of intracellular GSH. Thimerosal-induced cytotoxicity was associated with depletion of intracellular GSH in both cell lines. Pretreatment with 100 microM glutathione ethyl ester or N-acetylcysteine (NAC), but not methionine, resulted in a significant increase in intracellular GSH in both cell types. Further, pretreatment of the cells with glutathione ethyl ester or NAC prevented cytotoxicity with exposure to 15 microM Thimerosal. Although Thimerosal has been recently removed from most children’s vaccines, it is still present in flu vaccines given to pregnant women, the elderly, and to children in developing countries. The potential protective effect of GSH or NAC against mercury toxicity warrants further research as possible adjunct therapy to individuals still receiving Thimerosal-containing vaccinations.

A study conducted by the University of Texas Health Science Centre by the Department of Family and Community Medicine determined that for each 1,000 Ib of environmentally released mercury, there was a 43% increase in the rate of special education services and a 61% increase in the rate of autism. Researchers emphasized that further research was needed regarding the association between environmentally released mercury and developmental disorders such as autism.

US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – 2006

Study – Environmental mercury release, special education rates, and autism disorder: an ecological study of Texas

Palmer RF, Blanchard S, Stein Z, Mandell D, Miller C.
Author information
University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio Department of Family and Community Medicine, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, Texas 78229-3900, USA. palmer@uthscsa.edu

Abstract
The association between environmentally released mercury, special education and autism rates in Texas was investigated using data from the Texas Education Department and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. A Poisson regression analysis adjusted for school district population size, economic and demographic factors was used. There was a significant increase in the rates of special education students and autism rates associated with increases in environmentally released mercury. On average, for each 1,000 lb of environmentally released mercury, there was a 43% increase in the rate of special education services and a 61% increase in the rate of autism. The association between environmentally released mercury and special education rates were fully mediated by increased autism rates. This ecological study suggests the need for further research regarding the association between environmentally released mercury and developmental disorders such as autism. These results have implications for policy planning and cost analysis.

A study published in the International Journal of Toxicology determined that in light of the biological plausibility of mercury’s role in neurodevelopment disorders, the present study provides further insight into one possible mechanism by which early mercury exposures could increase the risk of autism.

US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – 2003

Study – Reduced levels of mercury in first baby haircuts of autistic children

Holmes AS, Blaxill MF, Haley BE.
Author information
SafeMinds, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Abstract
Reported rates of autism have increased sharply in the United States and the United Kingdom. One possible factor underlying these increases is increased exposure to mercury through thimerosal-containing vaccines, but vaccine exposures need to be evaluated in the context of cumulative exposures during gestation and early infancy. Differential rates of postnatal mercury elimination may explain why similar gestational and infant exposures produce variable neurological effects. First baby haircut samples were obtained from 94 children diagnosed with autism using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM IV) criteria and 45 age- and gender-matched controls. Information on diet, dental amalgam fillings, vaccine history, Rho D immunoglobulin administration, and autism symptom severity was collected through a maternal survey questionnaire and clinical observation. Hair mercury levels in the autistic group were 0.47 ppm versus 3.63 ppm in controls, a significant difference. The mothers in the autistic group had significantly higher levels of mercury exposure through Rho D immunoglobulin injections and amalgam fillings than control mothers. Within the autistic group, hair mercury levels varied significantly across mildly, moderately, and severely autistic children, with mean group levels of 0.79, 0.46, and 0.21 ppm, respectively. Hair mercury levels among controls were significantly correlated with the number of the mothers’ amalgam fillings and their fish consumption as well as exposure to mercury through childhood vaccines, correlations that were absent in the autistic group. Hair excretion patterns among autistic infants were significantly reduced relative to control. These data cast doubt on the efficacy of traditional hair analysis as a measure of total mercury exposure in a subset of the population. In light of the biological plausibility of mercury’s role in neurodevelopmental disorders, the present study provides further insight into one possible mechanism by which early mercury exposures could increase the risk of autism.

VAXXED TV – Vaxxed versus unvaccinated in my family

Donny’s story

I was extremely pro vaccine

MMR gave my son autism

My daughter is injured for life by the flu vaccine

I will not vaccinate my children

Doctor of infectious disease

SIDS technician

Vaxxed versus unvaccinated

5 members of my family are vaccine injured

****************************************************

How to accept Jesus Christ as your personal Saviour

Testimony by Phil Robertson from Duck Dynasty

1 Corinthians 15 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand;
2 by which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain.
3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures;
4 and that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:

Hebrews 6 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Therefore leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection; not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of faith toward God,
2 of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment.
3 And this will we do, if God permit.
4 For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost,
5 and have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come,
6 if they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame.
7 For the earth which drinketh in the rain that cometh oft upon it, and bringeth forth herbs meet for them by whom it is dressed, receiveth blessing from God:
8 but that which beareth thorns and briers is rejected, and is nigh unto cursing; whose end is to be burned.

 

Vaccine News – Study – Abnormal measles-mumps-rubella antibodies and CNS autoimmunity in children with autism & VAXXED TV – Vaccines gave my son autism

Study published in the Annals of Clinical Psychiatry suggests that Autism is likely triggered by a virus, and that measles virus (MV and/or MMR vaccine) might be a very good candidate. It supports the hypothesis that a virus-dincued autoimmune response may play a causal role in autism.

US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – 2002

Study – Abnormal measles-mumps-rubella antibodies and CNS autoimmunity in children with autism.

Singh VK, Lin SX, Newell E, Nelson C.
Author information
Department of Biology and Biotechnology Center, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA. singhvk@cc.usu.edu

Abstract
Autoimmunity to the central nervous system (CNS), especially to myelin basic protein (MBP), may play a causal role in autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder. Because many autistic children harbor elevated levels of measles antibodies, we conducted a serological study of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and MBP autoantibodies. Using serum samples of 125 autistic children and 92 control children, antibodies were assayed by ELISA or immunoblotting methods. ELISA analysis showed a significant increase in the level of MMR antibodies in autistic children. Immunoblotting analysis revealed the presence of an unusual MMR antibody in 75 of 125 (60%) autistic sera but not in control sera. This antibody specifically detected a protein of 73-75 kD of MMR. This protein band, as analyzed with monoclonal antibodies, was immunopositive for measles hemagglutinin (HA) protein but not for measles nucleoprotein and rubella or mumps viral proteins. Thus the MMR antibody in autistic sera detected measles HA protein, which is unique to the measles subunit of the vaccine. Furthermore, over 90% of MMR antibody-positive autistic sera were also positive for MBP autoantibodies, suggesting a strong association between MMR and CNS autoimmunity in autism. Stemming from this evidence, we suggest that an inappropriate antibody response to MMR, specifically the measles component thereof, might be related to pathogenesis of autism.

A study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition determined that an increased vulnerability to oxidative stress and decreased capacity for methylation may contribute to the development and clinical manifestation of autism. It’s well known that viral infections cause increased oxidative stress. Research suggests that metals, including those found in many vaccines are directly involved in increasing oxidative stress.

American Society for Clinical Nutrition – 2004

Study – Metabolic biomarkers of increased oxidative stress and impaired methylation capacity in children with autism

S Jill James, Paul Cutler, Stepan Melnyk, Stefanie Jernigan, Laurette Janak, David W Gaylor, and James A Neubrander
Author Affiliations
From the Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, and the Arkansas Children’s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (SJJ, SM, and SJ); Niagara Falls, NY (PC); Colden, NY (LJ); Gaylor and Associates, LLC, Eureka Springs, AR (DWG); and Edison, NJ (JAN)

Abstract

Background: Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that usually presents in early childhood and that is thought to be influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Although abnormal metabolism of methionine and homocysteine has been associated with other neurologic diseases, these pathways have not been evaluated in persons with autism.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate plasma concentrations of metabolites in the methionine transmethylation and transsulfuration pathways in children diagnosed with autism.

Design: Plasma concentrations of methionine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), adenosine, homocysteine, cystathionine, cysteine, and oxidized and reduced glutathione were measured in 20 children with autism and in 33 control children. On the basis of the abnormal metabolic profile, a targeted nutritional intervention trial with folinic acid, betaine, and methylcobalamin was initiated in a subset of the autistic children.

Results: Relative to the control children, the children with autism had significantly lower baseline plasma concentrations of methionine, SAM, homocysteine, cystathionine, cysteine, and total glutathione and significantly higher concentrations of SAH, adenosine, and oxidized glutathione. This metabolic profile is consistent with impaired capacity for methylation (significantly lower ratio of SAM to SAH) and increased oxidative stress (significantly lower redox ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione) in children with autism. The intervention trial was effective in normalizing the metabolic imbalance in the autistic children.

Conclusions: An increased vulnerability to oxidative stress and a decreased capacity for methylation may contribute to the development and clinical manifestation of autism.

A study published by the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences at Northeastern University, Boston determined that a novel growth factor signalling pathway that regulates methionine synthase(MS) activity and thereby modulates methylation reactions. The potent inhibition of this pathway by ethanol, lead, mercury, aluminum and thimerosal suggests that it may be an important target of neurodevelopmental toxins. You can read more about this here, and here. You can read more about the MS/autism link here

US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – Apr 2004

Study – Activation of methionine synthase by insulin-like growth factor-1 and dopamine: a target for neurodevelopmental toxins and thimerosal

Waly M, Olteanu H, Banerjee R, Choi SW, Mason JB, Parker BS, Sukumar S, Shim S, Sharma A, Benzecry JM, Power-Charnitsky VA, Deth RC.
Author information
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Abstract
Methylation events play a critical role in the ability of growth factors to promote normal development. Neurodevelopmental toxins, such as ethanol and heavy metals, interrupt growth factor signaling, raising the possibility that they might exert adverse effects on methylation. We found that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)- and dopamine-stimulated methionine synthase (MS) activity and folate-dependent methylation of phospholipids in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, via a PI3-kinase- and MAP-kinase-dependent mechanism. The stimulation of this pathway increased DNA methylation, while its inhibition increased methylation-sensitive gene expression. Ethanol potently interfered with IGF-1 activation of MS and blocked its effect on DNA methylation, whereas it did not inhibit the effects of dopamine. Metal ions potently affected IGF-1 and dopamine-stimulated MS activity, as well as folate-dependent phospholipid methylation: Cu(2+) promoted enzyme activity and methylation, while Cu(+), Pb(2+), Hg(2+) and Al(3+) were inhibitory. The ethylmercury-containing preservative thimerosal inhibited both IGF-1- and dopamine-stimulated methylation with an IC(50) of 1 nM and eliminated MS activity. Our findings outline a novel growth factor signaling pathway that regulates MS activity and thereby modulates methylation reactions, including DNA methylation. The potent inhibition of this pathway by ethanol, lead, mercury, aluminum and thimerosal suggests that it may be an important target of neurodevelopmental toxins.

VAXXED TV – Vaccines gave my son autism

Vaccines while pregnant injured my daughter

Dr. Suzanne Humphries discusses smallpox from 1797 – 2005

MERCK’S DIRTY LITTLE SECRET – BY DR. SUZANNE HUMPHRIES

I Didn’t Realize we had a Choice

I am unvaccinated and want to be a nurse

More Vaxxed versus unvaccinated #vaxxed

I’m done vaccinating my family

No more vaccines #vaxxed #praybig

MMR gave my son autism

 

****************************************************

How to accept Jesus Christ as your personal Saviour

Testimony by Phil Robertson from Duck Dynasty

1 Corinthians 15 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand;
2 by which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain.
3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures;
4 and that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:

Hebrews 6 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Therefore leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection; not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of faith toward God,
2 of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment.
3 And this will we do, if God permit.
4 For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost,
5 and have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come,
6 if they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame.
7 For the earth which drinketh in the rain that cometh oft upon it, and bringeth forth herbs meet for them by whom it is dressed, receiveth blessing from God:
8 but that which beareth thorns and briers is rejected, and is nigh unto cursing; whose end is to be burned.

 

Vaccine News – VAXXED TV – What If I Harmed My Children

Study – Comparison of Blood and Brain Mercury Levels in Infant Monkeys Exposed to Methylmercury or Vaccines Containing Thimerosal

Environmental Health – Apr 2005

Thomas M. Burbacher, Danny D. Shen, Noelle Liberato,
Kimberly S. Grant, Elsa Cernichiari, and Thomas Clarkson

Abstract
Thimerosal is a preservative that has been used in manufacturing vaccines since the 1930s. Reports have indicated that infants can receive ethylmercury (in the form of thimerosal) at or above the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines for methylmercury (MeHg) exposure, depending on the exact vaccinations, schedule, and size of the infant. This study compared the systemic disposition and brain distribution of total and inorganic mercury in infant monkeys following thimerosal exposure with infants exposed to MeHg. Monkeys were exposed to MeHg (via oral gavage) or vaccines containing thimerosal (via i.m. injection) at birth and 1, 2, and 3 weeks of age. Total blood mercury (Hg) levels were determined 2, 4 and 7 days after each exposure. Total and inorganic brain Hg levels were assessed 2, 4, 7 or 28 days after the last exposure. The initial and terminal half-life of Hg in blood following thimerosal exposure was 2.1 and 8.6 days, which are significantly shorter than the elimination half-life of Hg following MeHg exposure at 21.5 days. Brain concentrations of total Hg were significantly lower by ~3-fold for the thimerosal-exposed infants when compared to the MeHg infants, while the average brain-to-blood concentration ratio was slightly higher for the thimerosal-exposed infants (3.5±1.0 vs. 2.5±0.6). A higher percentage of the total Hg in the brain was in the form of inorganic mercury for the thimerosal-exposed infants (34% vs 7%). The current study indicates that MeHg is not a suitable reference for risk assessment from exposure to thimerosal derived Hg. Knowledge of the toxicokinetics and developmental toxicity of thimerosal is needed to afford a meaningful assessment of the developmental effects of thimerosal-containing vaccines.

Study – Evolution of multiple sclerosis in France since the beginning of hepatitis B vaccination

US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health – 14 Nov 2014

Dominique Le Houézeccorresponding author
REVAHB (“Réseau Vaccin Hépatite B” in French), 32 rue du Clos Herbert, 14000 Caen, France

Abstract
Since the implementation of the mass vaccination campaign against hepatitis B in France, the appearance of multiple sclerosis, sometimes occurring in the aftermath of vaccinations, led to the publication of epidemiological international studies. This was also justified by the sharp increase in the annual incidence of multiple sclerosis reported to the French health insurance in the mid-1990s. Almost 20 years later, a retrospective reflection can be sketched from these official data and also from the national pharmacovigilance agency. Statistical data from these latter sources seem to show a significant correlation between the number of hepatitis B vaccinations performed and the declaration to the pharmacovigilance of multiple sclerosis occurring between 1 and 2 years later. The application of the Hill’s criteria to these data indicates that the correlation between hepatitis B vaccine and multiple sclerosis may be causal.

Temporal Association of Certain Neuropsychiatric Disorders Following Vaccination of Children and Adolescents: A Pilot Case–Control Study

Douglas L. Leslie1*, imageRobert A. Kobre2, imageBrian J. Richmand2, imageSelin Aktan Guloksuz2 and imageJames F. Leckman2*

1 Department of Public Health Sciences, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA
2 Yale Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA

Background: Although the association of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine with autism spectrum disorder has been convincingly disproven, the onset of certain brain-related autoimmune and inflammatory disorders has been found to be temporally associated with the antecedent administration of various vaccines. This study examines whether antecedent vaccinations are associated with increased incidence of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), anorexia nervosa (AN), anxiety disorder, chronic tic disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder in a national sample of privately insured children.

Methods: Using claims data, we compared the prior year’s occurrence of vaccinations in children and adolescents aged 6–15 years with the above neuropsychiatric disorders that were newly diagnosed between January 2002 and December 2007, as well as two control conditions, broken bones and open wounds. Subjects were matched with controls according to age, gender, geographical area, and seasonality. Conditional logistic regression models were used to determine the association of prior vaccinations with each condition.

Results: Subjects with newly diagnosed AN were more likely than controls to have had any vaccination in the previous 3 months [hazard ratio (HR) 1.80, 95% confidence interval 1.21–2.68]. Influenza vaccinations during the prior 3, 6, and 12 months were also associated with incident diagnoses of AN, OCD, and an anxiety disorder. Several other associations were also significant with HRs greater than 1.40 (hepatitis A with OCD and AN; hepatitis B with AN; and meningitis with AN and chronic tic disorder).

Conclusion: This pilot epidemiologic analysis implies that the onset of some neuropsychiatric disorders may be temporally related to prior vaccinations in a subset of individuals. These findings warrant further investigation, but do not prove a causal role of antecedent infections or vaccinations in the pathoetiology of these conditions. Given the modest magnitude of these findings in contrast to the clear public health benefits of the timely administration of vaccines in preventing mortality and morbidity in childhood infectious diseases, we encourage families to maintain vaccination schedules according to CDC guidelines.

VAXXED TV – I can’t believe they are doing this!
Patricia Gua tells of her injuries from receiving the HEP-B vaccination.
Interview recorded on May 5th, 2017 in The United Kingdom

What If I Harmed My Children
Kelly Johnson, author of “What If?: I Harmed My Children” gives detailed accounts of her experiences with her kids which inspired her to write the book. You can find a copy of it for purchase or download here: http://a.co/6Fy23cJ
Interview recorded on May 5th, 2017 in The United Kingdom

I had every reaction documented
Liola shares about the details of her children’s reactions to vaccinations and the challenges they faced.
Interview recorded on May 5th, 2017 in The United Kingdom

It’s sad we have to learn the hard way
A mother shares her story about her children’s reactions to the vaccines.
Interview recorded on May 5th, 2017 in The United Kingdom

Know Your Body

Drunk on Toxins

Mark Blaxill

A Tribute To Polly Tommey

Dr Suzanne- more herd immunity

Vaccinated versus unvaccinated

****************************************************

How to accept Jesus Christ as your personal Saviour

Testimony by Phil Robertson from Duck Dynasty

1 Corinthians 15 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand;
2 by which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain.
3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures;
4 and that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:

Hebrews 6 Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)
1 Therefore leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection; not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of faith toward God,
2 of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment.
3 And this will we do, if God permit.
4 For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost,
5 and have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come,
6 if they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame.
7 For the earth which drinketh in the rain that cometh oft upon it, and bringeth forth herbs meet for them by whom it is dressed, receiveth blessing from God:
8 but that which beareth thorns and briers is rejected, and is nigh unto cursing; whose end is to be burned.

Vaccine News – Study – Gender-selective toxicity of thimerosal

PubMed.gov – Mar.2009
Abstract
A recent report shows a correlation of the historical use of thimerosal in therapeutic immunizations with the subsequent development of autism; however, this association remains controversial. Autism occurs approximately four times more frequently in males compared to females; thus, studies of thimerosal toxicity should take into consideration gender-selective effects. The present study was originally undertaken to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of thimersosal in male and female CD1 mice. However, during the limited MTD studies, it became apparent that thimerosal has a differential MTD that depends on whether the mouse is male or female. At doses of 38.4-76.8mg/kg using 10% DMSO as diluent, seven of seven male mice compared to zero of seven female mice tested succumbed to thimerosal. Although the thimerosal levels used were very high, as we were originally only trying to determine MTD, it was completely unexpected to observe a difference of the MTD between male and female mice. Thus, our studies, although not directly addressing the controversy surrounding thimerosal and autism, and still preliminary due to small numbers of mice examined, provide, nevertheless, the first report of gender-selective toxicity of thimerosal and indicate that any future studies of thimerosal toxicity should take into consideration gender-specific differences.
PubMed.gov – 15.Mar.2010
Abstract
Mercury (Hg) exposure from dental amalgam fillings and thimerosal in vaccines is not a major health hazard, but adverse health effects cannot be ruled out in a small and more susceptible part of the exposed population. Individual differences in toxicokinetics may explain susceptibility to mercury. Inbred, H-2-congenic A.SW and B10.S mice and their F1- and F2-hybrids were given HgCl2 with 2.0 mg Hg/L drinking water and traces of (203)Hg. Whole-body retention (WBR) was monitored until steady state after 5 weeks, when the organ Hg content was assessed. Despite similar Hg intake, A.SW males attained a 20-30% significantly higher WBR and 2- to 5-fold higher total renal Hg retention/concentration than A.SW females and B10.S mice. A selective renal Hg accumulation but of lower magnitude was seen also in B10.S males compared with females. Differences in WBR and organ Hg accumulation are therefore regulated by non-H-2 genes and gender. Lymph nodes lacked the strain- and gender-dependent Hg accumulation profile of kidney, liver and spleen. After 15 days without Hg A.SW mice showed a 4-fold higher WBR and liver Hg concentration, but 11-fold higher renal Hg concentration, showing the key role for the kidneys in explaining the slower Hg elimination in A.SW mice. The trait causing higher mercury accumulation was not dominantly inherited in the F1 hybrids. F2 mice showed a large inter-individual variation in Hg accumulation, showing that multiple genetic factors influence the Hg toxicokinetics in the mouse. The genetically heterogeneous human population may therefore show a large variation in mercury toxicokinetics.
US National Library of Medicine – National Institutes of Health – Feb.2015
Results
Developmental Domain: ASD Diagnostic Criteria
Social Communication/Social Interaction
Deficits in social communication and social interaction are core factors in the diagnostic criteria of ASD. Impairments in social communication may present as abnormalities in eye contact, poor integration of verbal and nonverbal behaviors, and difficulties understanding the nonverbal communication of others (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). In some cases, persons with ASD may not participate in conversation or struggle with pragmatic language (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Impairments in social interaction include difficulties with social-emotional reciprocity, failure to develop peer relationships, and reduced empathetic understanding and/or response (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
There were 21 articles reviewed on social communication and social interaction in persons with ASD published between 1993 and 2013: 13 case-control studies, 7 cross-sectional studies, and 1 surveillance study. Nine studies were conducted in the United States and 12 studies were conducted at outside of the US. Of these 21 articles, 14 address social communication or other language abilities. In samples of children with varying cognitive abilities, some studies showed no significant differences in communication, conversational deficits, and language levels between males and females with ASD (Andersson et al., 2013; Dawson et al., 2007; Nicholas et al., 2008; Pilowsky et al., 1998; Park et al., 2012a, 2012b; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Mandy et al., 2012; Sipes et al., 2011; Solomon et al., 2012; Amr et al., 2011). One study found that males with ASD had greater expressive and receptive language skills than females with ASD (Carter et al., 2007) and another study found that females with ASD had more impaired social communication skills than males with ASD (Hartley and Sikora, 2009). Conversely, Park et al. (2012b) found that females with ASD had stronger non-verbal communication abilities than males with ASD. The majority of the literature reviewed on social communication found no difference between males and females with ASD, but there is some inconsistency.
The literature on sex differences in social interaction among persons with ASD (13 of 21 articles reviewed) is also inconsistent but generally suggests no significant sex differences in social interaction skills (Andersson et al., 2013; Dawson et al., 2007; Nicholas et al., 2008; Pilowsky et al., 1998; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Park et al. 2012b; Mandy et al., 2012; Sipes et al., 2011; Solomon et al., 2012). In population-level surveillance of eight-year olds, 80 % of children with ASD had poor social-emotional reciprocity with no significant difference between males and females (Nicholas et al., 2008). Szatmari et al. (2012) also found no sex differences in social-emotional reciprocity for children with varying cognitive abilities in a study from the Autism Genome Project. Oppositely, in an age and IQ matched case–control study, female adults with ASD were found to have fewer socio-communication difficulties during interpersonal interaction than male adults with ASD (Lai et al., 2013). Lastly, no sex differences have been noted in emotional reactiveness or being withdrawn (Hartley and Sikora, 2009) and in empathetic understanding and responses (Auyeung et al., 2009).
Cognitive functioning is likely to play a role in these social processes. Lower intellectual abilities are often linked with greater social impairment regardless of sex (Dawson et al., 2007). Among children with high functioning autism (IQ≥70), social skills have been found to be more impaired in female children than male children (Holtmann et al., 2007) and more severe as children aged (McLennan et al., 1993). In contrast, other studies found adult females with high functioning autism to have less socio-communication issues compared to males (Lai et al., 2011) or there were no sex differences in socio-communication skills in older children and adolescents (Holtmann et al., 2007; Kopp and Gillberg, 2011).
Overall, the 21 articles reviewed suggest no difference in social interaction between males and females with ASD and inconsistent differences in social communication between males and females with ASD, although both social interaction and social communication may be influenced by intellectual ability and age.
Restricted, Repetitive Patterns of Behavior, Interests, or Activities
There were 18 articles reviewed on restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests (RRBI) published between 1993 and 2013: nine cross-sectional studies, seven case–control studies, one cohort study, and one surveillance study. Eleven studies were conducted in the United States and seven studies were conducted in other countries. Based on this review, the literature suggests that males with ASD have more RRBI than females with ASD (Hattier et al., 2011; Carter et al., 2007). When assessing individual facets of RRBI, restricted interests are seen more often in males with ASD than females with ASD independent of cognitive ability (Kohane et al., 2012; May et al., 2012; Mandy et al., 2012; Szatmari et al., 2012). Males with ASD are also more likely to have more routines, rituals, and fascination with parts of objects than females with ASD (Nicholas et al., 2008; Park, et al., 2012b; Beuker et al., 2013). The literature on repetitive motor movements is less consistent: adult males with high functioning autism or Asperger’s syndrome had more repetitive motor movements than adult females with high functioning autism or Asperger’s syndrome in one case-control study (May et al., 2012), but there were no sex differences in repetitive motor movements among persons with autism in two other case-control studies (McLennan et al., 1993; Worley and Matson, 2011), one cross-sectional study (Auyeung et al., 2009), and one population-based cross-sectional study (Nicholas et al., 2008).
Age may influence the presentation of RRBI in males and females with ASD. One study found no sex difference among RRBI in toddlers (Sipes et al., 2011), whereas a different study found significantly more RRBI among adult males with ASD compared to females with ASD (Hattier et al., 2011). In summation, most studies reviewed suggested that males with ASD are likely to have more RRBI than females with ASD across levels of cognitive ability, although RRBI may be influenced by age.
Sensory issues are prevalent among persons with ASD (Nicholas et al., 2008) and are included as a RRBI in the DSM 5 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Common issues are oversensitivity to touch, sound, smell, taste, and attraction to certain tactile stimuli (American Psychiatric Association, 2013; Baranek et al., 2006; Rogers et al., 2003). Abnormal sensory reactions have been reported to occur in up to 47 % of persons with ASD, which is a rate ten times higher than reported in the general population (Nicholas et al., 2008). Additionally, there is a significant correlation between sensory issues in each of the individual senses (Kern et al., 2007); therefore, impairment is compounded for persons with ASD and sensory abnormalities.
Cross-sectional studies found no observed differences between males and females in sensitivity to sound (Mandy et al., 2012) or sensory sensitivity in general (Louisa et al., 2012; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Baranek et al., 2006). Mandy et al. (2012) examined RRBI in children and adolescents 3 to 18 years of age and found that age did not influence the presentation of RRBI. However, Lai et al. (2011) found that adult females with high functioning autism had more lifetime sensory issues than males with ASD. Overall, the majority of articles reviewed that addressed sensory issues in ASD do not suggest a sex difference, although aging may be a factor and should be further explored.
Developmental Domain: other Developmental Endophenotypes
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and corresponding symptoms are common in children with ASD (Bradley and Isaacs, 2006; Nicholas et al., 2008). Previous studies show that 50 % to 83 % of children and teenagers with ASD had hyperactivity and attention problems (Nicholas et al., 2008; Bradley and Isaacs, 2006). There were seven articles that met search criteria and addressed ADHD. These seven articles were published between 2008 and 2012 with five cross-sectional studies and two cohort studies. Two studies were conducted in the United States and five were conducted in other countries.
A study of 7 to 12 year-olds with varying cognitive abilities found that males with ASD had higher levels of hyperactivity and impulsivity than females with ASD and this difference was more pronounced at younger ages (May et al., 2012). Males with high functioning autism from middle childhood to adolescence had higher levels of hyper-activity and inattention in teacher reports as compared to female peers, but there was no difference in parental reports (Mandy et al., 2012). A study of children and young adults aged 5 to 20 with high functioning autism found females had more attention problems (Bryson et al., 2008). A majority of studies found no difference in ADHD co-occurrence between males and females with ASD (Simonoff et al., 2008; Sinzig et al., 2009; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Horovitz et al., 2011). In summary, the current literature leans toward no sex differences in the co-occurrence of ADHD and ASD, but there is still inconsistency in the literature and thus, the sex difference is largely inconclusive
Challenging Behavior (Aggressiveness/Temper Tantrums/Oppositional Tendencies)
Challenging behavior is a common associated feature of ASD and includes aggression expressed toward other people, temper tantrums, and oppositional and defiant tendencies. Aggression expressed toward other people and temper tantrums are found in 50 % and 54 % of children with ASD compared to only 28 % and 23 % of children without ASD (Nicholas et al., 2008). The 12 articles in this review that met search criteria and addressed challenging behaviors were published between 2005 and 2012 and included six cross-sectional studies, four case–control studies, one clinical trial, and one surveillance study. Six studies were conducted in the United States and six were conducted in other countries. In general, there were no differences in aggression, temper tantrums, or anger between child sexes, regardless of age or cognitive ability (Kozlowski et al., 2012; Worley and Matson, 2011; Carter et al., 2007; Murphy et al., 2009; Mandy et al., 2012; Quek et al., 2012; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Horovitz et al., 2011). One study found that females with ASD had more “challenging behaviors” than males with ASD, although challenging behaviors were not explicitly defined (Dworzynski et al., 2012). Delinquent behavior (Park et al., 2012b) and oppositional defiance (Gadow et al., 2005) were more prevalent in males than in females with ASD in two studies reviewed.
Cognitive Skills and Intellectual Disability
In a review from 1966 to 2001, Fombonne (2003) found that the median prevalence of intellectual impairment in persons with ASD was 70 % in the studies evaluated. More recent population-based studies have found lower rates of ID in persons with ASD, with a range from 18 % to 55 % (Charman et al., 2011). The National Health Interview Study found 0.71 % of all children aged 3 to 17 from 1998 to 2007 had an ID (Boyle et al., 2011). Our review found 12 articles that met the search criteria and addressed ID or specific cognitive skills. These 12 articles were published between 1983 and 2011, and included seven cross-sectional studies, four case–control studies, and one-surveillance study. Four studies were conducted in the United States and eight were conducted in other countries.
The 12 articles reviewed support a relationship between child sex and co-occurring ID in children with ASD. The sex ratio between males and females without ID is greater than the sex ratio for all levels of cognitive ability combined (Nicholas et al., 2008; Hartley and Sikora, 2009). Consequently, the male to female ratio is lower when there is co-occurring ID compared to when there is no co-occurring ID (Hartley and Sikora, 2009; Nicholas et al., 2008; Yeargin-Allsopp et al., 2003). The ratio of males to females with ASD and co-occurring ID has been seen to range from 1.3:1 (Tsai and Beisler, 1983) to 2.8:1 (Bryson et al., 2008) with a trend toward fewer sex differences as ID becomes more severe (Yeargin-Allsopp et al., 2003). This differential sex difference in ID results in females with ASD, on average, having lower intelligence test scores than males with ASD (Banach et al., 2009; Volkmar et al., 1993).
Specific cognitive skills posited to vary between males and females with ASD include cognitive flexibility, response inhibition, working memory, and attention to detail (Geurts et al., 2004). Female adolescents with high functioning autism were seen to have superior information processing, multiple conceptual tracking, divided attention, and cognitive flexibility compared to male adolescents with high functioning autism (Bolte et al., 2011). In contrast, studies show males with ASD have superior attention to detail, visuo-spatial skills (Auyeung et al., 2009), and inhibitory control (Lemon et al., 2011) compared to females with ASD. There were no sex differences between adults with ASD in the “eyes test” which measures ability to infer mental states through the eyes (Lai et al., 2011). In summary, the 12 journal articles reviewed in this section suggest that females with ASD generally have lower intelligence test scores than males with ASD and that specific cognitive skills may vary by sex.
Developmental Regression
Parents of some children with ASD report a period of typical development followed by a loss in language, social, motor, self-help, imaginative play, or other skills. This developmental regression is usually reported to occur between 15 and 24 months of age (Meilleur and Fombonne, 2009). Our review found six articles that met search criteria and addressed developmental regression. These six articles were published between 2007 and 2013 and comprised two cohort studies, three cross-sectional studies, and one surveillance study. In a population-based surveillance study of children with ASD, 17 % of children had documented developmental regression and that percentage rose if the child had a previous ASD diagnosis (Wiggins et al., 2009). Males had significantly more regression than females and were more likely to regress at a younger age (Wiggins et al., 2009). This higher risk of regression in males was also seen in smaller, non-population based studies (n=4, 8, and 17 female children) (Bernabei et al., 2007; Ekinci et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2012). In contrast, a cross-sectional study found that females aged 18 months to 15 years had significantly higher occurrence of regression as compared to males (30 % vs. 19 %) (Ben-Itzchak et al., 2013). No difference in the presence of developmental regression between males and females with ASD was observed in a small clinical sample of 20 females (Meilleur and Fombonne, 2009). In sum, the review of sex differences of developmental regression is contradictory and thus inconclusive.
Excess/Absence of Fear
Excess or absence of fear is more common in children with ASD than other children (Evans et al. 2005; Nicholas et al., 2008). In a population-based surveillance of eight-year olds, Nicholas et al. (2008) found that 32 % of children with ASD had atypical fear noted in service records compared to 6 % of children with ASD symptoms but no ASD diagnosis. Three articles met search criteria and addressed excess or absence of fear. All three of these articles were published in the United States between 1990 and 2011 and were two cross-sectional studies and one case–control study. In these studies, females with ASD had more specific phobias than males with ASD (Gadow and DeVincent, 2012; Matson and Love, 1990) and more unusual fears (Mayes et al., 2013). One study conducted by Matson and Love (1990) found more fear in typically developing female children compared to male children and no significant difference in fear between typically developing female children and female children with ASD. Given the sparse amount of research on this topic, further exploration is warranted to understand sex differences in fear among persons with ASD.
Safety Issues (Self-Injury/Elopement)
About 50 % of children with ASD engage in self-injurious behavior (Richards et al., 2012; Baghdadli et al., 2003; Duerden et al., 2012). Four studies met search criteria and three pertained to self-injurious behavior. All three of these studies were cross-sectional designs with two being conducted in Europe and one in the United States. No difference in self-injurious behavior was found between males and females with ASD (Richards et al., 2012; Baghdadli et al., 2003; Duerden et al., 2012).
Elopement, also known as wandering off, is a rising concern among parents of children with ASD. One online survey addressing elopement met our search criteria. This survey was conducted in the United States in 2013 and found that 49 % of parents reported that their child with an ASD wandered off at least once after the age of four years (Anderson et al., 2012). Results also found that sex did not influence the prevalence of elopement, although children with more intellectual impairment were more likely to elope (Anderson et al., 2012). Few conclusions can be drawn since there is little research on elopement and other safety issues in children with ASD and associated sex differences.
Psychiatric Domain
Anxiety/Mood Disorders
Symptoms of anxiety and mood disorders are more prevalent in children with ASD than in typically developing children (Worley and Matson, 2011; Nicholas et al., 2008). Among children who met a surveillance definition for an ASD, 55 % had abnormal mood or affect compared to 26 % of children with at least one symptom of an ASD but no ASD diagnosis (Schendel et al., 2009). The Special Needs Autism Project in the UK found 44 cases of emotional disorder per 100 children with ASD (Simonoff et al., 2008). Moreover, among eight-year-old children who met a surveillance definition for an ASD, 3 % had anxiety, 2 % had emotional disorder, 2 % had mood disorder, and less than 2 % had obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), depression, bipolar, or oppositional defiant disorder (Levy et al., 2010). Nine studies were found that met search criteria and addressed anxiety or mood disorders. These nine studies were published between 2005 and 2012 and included five cross-sectional studies and four case–control studies. Four of the studies were conducted in the United States and five were conducted in other countries.
The literature on sex differences in co-occurring anxiety or mood disorders and ASD is mixed and dependent on cognitive abilities. In some studies, females with high functioning autism were at greater risk for internalizing psychopathology than both male children with ASD and typically developing female children (Solomon et al., 2012; Mandy et al., 2012). These studies are supported by a Finnish report that found female children with ASD had lower scores on a test associated with major depressive disorder compared to male children with ASD (Mattila et al., 2010). Other studies found no sex differences in the of co-occurrence of anxiety or depression in children with ASD and varying cognitive abilities (Quek et al., 2012; Gadow et al., 2005; Park et al., 2012b; Simonoff et al., 2008; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Lai et al., 2011). In the general population, females have more panic attacks, generalized anxiety disorders and males have more social anxiety (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Based on this review, the current literature is inconclusive on whether a sex difference in children with ASD and co-occurring anxiety or mood disorders exists, although a few studies suggest more anxiety and mood disorders in females than males with ASD.
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that involves delusions, disorganized behavior, disorganized speech, hallucinations, and restrictions in the range and intensity of emotions (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Schizophrenia typically presents between 18 and 30 years of age with earlier onset associated with male sex. Lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia is near 0.2 % (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) The prevalence of schizophrenia in eight-year olds with ASD is less than 1 % (Levy et al., 2010). Two articles met search criteria and addressed schizophrenia. These two articles were published in 2005 and 2010 and were both case–control studies. Review of the two studies found conflicting results on sex differences and the co-occurrence of ASD and schizophrenia or schizophrenia spectrum traits. A parental survey of 6 to 12 year olds with ASD found schizophrenia spectrum traits to be twice as prevalent in females compared to males (57 %: 28 %) independent of ID (Gadow and DeVincent, 2012). Conversely, in a group of 6 to 12 year olds with ASD and ID, schizophrenia was more common in males than females (Tsakanikos et al., 2011). Again, the literature is relatively sparse due to the late onset of schizophrenia and the rarity of co-occurring schizophrenia: future research is warranted.
Medical Domain
Birth defects/Chromosomal Disorders /Genetic Disorders
Population-based surveillance data from the 2008 ADDM report found that among children with ASD, less than 1 % had a co-occurrence of fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, chromosomal disorders, or other genetic and congenital diagnoses (Levy et al., 2010). It is likely that these rates are under-reported because investigation of ASD co-occurring conditions was not the focus of the ADDM surveillance effort. However, a cohort study of children in Georgia found a similar prevalence of chromosomal disorders and Down syndrome in persons with ASD (Schendel et al., 2009).
There were four studies reviewed that met search criteria and addressed ASD sex differences in birth defects, chromosomal disorders, and genetic disorders: two systematic reviews, one case–control study, and one surveillance study. Co-occurring birth defects, such as impairments to the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, genitourinary system, or musculoskeletal system, appear more often in males than females with ASD. Among children with ASD, the male to female ratio was 9:1 if a child had a co-occurring birth defect and 3.6:1 if the child did not have a co-occurring birth defect (Schendel et al., 2009).
A review conducted by Reilly (2009) found that males with ASD have more co-occurring Down syndrome than females with ASD and the male to female ratio among children with both ASD and Down syndrome may be near the overall ASD prevalence ratio of 4:1. A review conducted by Wiznitzer (2004) found no difference between males and females with ASD and the co-occurrence of tuberous sclerosis. Clifford et al. (2007) found that about 70 % of males aged 5 to 80 with fragile X syndrome had co-occurring ASD while 23 % of females in the same age range with fragile X had co-occurring ASD. The difference in co-occurrence of ASD between males and females may suggest a greater association between the two conditions in males as compared to females.
It is important to note that birth defects, chromosomal disorders, and genetic disorders are rare and seldom studied. Therefore, the results on sex differences for co-occurring ASD and chromosomal and genetic conditions are inconclusive.
Head Size / Encephalopathy
Head size, specifically an enlarged head circumference or macrocephaly, has been associated with ASD (Wallace and Treffert, 2004). Three articles were reviewed that examined differences in head size between males and females with ASD. Studies include two case–control studies and one cross-sectional study. Two studies were conducted in the US and one study was conducted in Italy. A cross-sectional study by Fombonne et al. (1999) found no difference in head size between males and females aged 2 to 16 with ASD. Sacco et al. (2007) also found no difference in head size between males and females aged 3 to 16 with ASD. In contrast, Aylward et al. (2002) found larger head sizes in male adults and children compared to female adults and children with ASD, but the female sample size was low (n=9).
Abnormal Eating and Gastrointestinal Issues
In a population-based study conducted by Nicholas et al. (2008), about 54 % of children with ASD had an abnormality in eating, drinking, or sleeping, which is nearly 40 % higher than that of children with at least one symptom of ASD but no diagnosis (Nicholas et al., 2008). Some studies have shown an increase in certain gastrointestinal symptoms among persons with ASD, including constipation (Ibrahim et al., 2009) and diarrhea (Wang et al., 2006), while other studies found no significant increase in overall gastrointestinal symptoms or symptoms such as esophageal reflux, vomiting, and abdominal discomfort (Ibrahim et al., 2009; Wang et al., 2006; Valicenti-McDermott et al., 2007). However, little research on gastrointestinal issues has been conducted at a population level and no studies were found that compared males to females on gastrointestinal response. More research is needed to determine if there is an association between gastrointestinal symptoms and ASD and whether the association differs between the sexes.
Four studies were found that compared the sexes and addressed food selectivity. These four studies were conducted in the United States between 2006 and 2010 and included one case–control and three cross-sectional designs. In general, review of these studies found food selectivity and feeding issues to be more frequent in children with ASD than children without ASD (Valicenti-McDermott et al., 2007; Ibrahim et al., 2009), although limited research is available in this area. There was no difference between child sexes in over or under-eating in a study of children with high functioning autism (Worley and Matson, 2011) and no differences between the sexes in eating abnormalities in two studies conducted in children with ASD and varying cognitive abilities (Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Horovitz et al., 2011). Based on this limited review, it appears unlikely that there is a difference in eating habits between males and females with ASD.
Seizures/ Epilepsy
Epilepsy and other seizure disorders co-occur in 5 % to 40 % of children with ASD and there is differential prevalence based on ID (Baird et al., 2008; Nicholas et al., 2008). This review found three articles that met search criteria and addressed seizures or epilepsy. These three articles were published between 2008 and 2013 and consist of a cohort study, one cross-sectional study, and one meta-analysis. Females with ASD were found to have more epilepsy than males with ASD; the male to female ratio drops to near 2:1 in children with ASD and co-occurring epilepsy, but this may be partly due to differential ID (Amiet et al., 2008; Bolton et al., 2011; Ben-Itzchak et al., 2013). There may be an increased likeliness in females with ASD to have co-occurring epilepsy or seizure disorder; however, the literature is sparse so a conclusion cannot be drawn. Further research is needed to enhance current knowledge of sex differences in children with ASD and epilepsy or seizure disorder.
Sleep Disturbances
In a systematic review of parental sleep surveys, sleep problems were present in 50 % to 80 % of children with ASD compared to 9 % to 50 % in matched typically developing children (Kotagal and Broomall, 2012). There were six articles reviewed that met search criteria and addressed sleep disturbances. These six articles were published between 2004 and 2012 and included two case–control studies, two cohort studies, and two cross-sectional studies. Four were conducted in the United States and three were conducted in other countries. Based on this review, some studies found no sex differences in sleep problems among persons with ASD (Liu et al., 2006; Wiggs and Stores, 2004; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Horovitz et al., 2011), one study found that female children with ASD have less sleep problems than male children with ASD (Sivertsen et al., 2012), and one study found female children with ASD have more sleep problems than male children with ASD (Hartley and Sikora, 2009). The minimal amount of research in this area leads to inconsistent results and prevents definitive conclusions on whether a sex difference exists in sleep disturbance.