Vaccine News – BREAKING: Robert F. Kennedy Jr. calls for extradition of CDC vaccine criminal mastermind Poul Thorsen to face charges of criminal scientific misconduct

Deep sequencing reveals persistence of cell-associated mumps vaccine virus in chronic encephalitis
Abstract
Routine childhood vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella has virtually abolished virus-related morbidity and mortality. Notwithstanding this, we describe here devastating neurological complications associated with the detection of live-attenuated mumps virus Jeryl Lynn (MuVJL5) in the brain of a child who had undergone successful allogeneic transplantation for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). This is the first confirmed report of MuVJL5 associated with chronic encephalitis and highlights the need to exclude immunodeficient individuals from immunisation with live-attenuated vaccines. The diagnosis was only possible by deep sequencing of the brain biopsy. Sequence comparison of the vaccine batch to the MuVJL5 isolated from brain identified biased hypermutation, particularly in the matrix gene, similar to those found in measles from cases of SSPE. The findings provide unique insights into the pathogenesis of paramyxovirus brain infections

To my friends in Australia: the vaccine war deepens
by Jon Rappoport
September 20, 2017
The string of abuses laid on citizens of Australia by their government grows almost week by week.
Now, parental rights to raise children, without interference from the State, is under a new form of attack. This must be resisted.
Schools are bringing doctors on board, as a permanent feature. Young children will be subjected to medical diagnoses and treatment, without consent or approval from parents, even if those parents actively object. The State is stealing the role of guardian.
The Herald Sun reports. Read carefully:
“DOCTORS will have the power to treat students as young as 12 in schools even if parents refuse their consent.”
“GPs will consult at 100 Victoria high schools for up to one day a week as part of a $43.8 million program.”
“Guidelines released on Thursday show that even if a parent ‘expressly states’ that a doctor should not [examine] their child, the GP can if they deem the teen mature enough.”
“’Any student who wants to see the GP will be permitted to make an appointment,’ the policy said.”
“The GP will decide if the young person is mature enough to provide consent to any medical treatment for the prevailing issue.”
A young child “giving consent?” This is supposed to be “informed consent” when facing off with an adult doctor?

AUSTRALIAN BABY GIRL MURDERED BY VACCINE!

Australian Medical Association: Class Action against the AMA for Vaccine Injury
Why this is important
The health and well being of our beautiful and innocent Australian children are paramount to all Australians.
It’s obvious to anyone with intelligence that there is an epidemic of ill health occurring with children around the World and particularly, with our Australian children which can be traced to Vaccine Injury through multiplying forced application of a large and growing number of untested combined vaccines riddled with known carcinogens and poisons being directly administered into the blood streams of our Australian babies and children.
Modern medical, psychological, health and nutritional sciences have grave questions as to the efficacy of these vaccines and in fact clearly, illustrate that these vaccines are in general unnecessary and poisonous and in fact interfere with the natural immune system of the human being.
We call for a moratorium of forced vaccination of Australian children and the initiation of major testing initiatives in Australia and elsewhere to prove any efficacy of injecting these poisons into our Children.
We are appalled at the support of the Australian Medical Association of these unscientific and abusive injurious procedures causing epidemic harm to our beautiful and innocent

Australian Children and demand:
1. The AMA stop all support for these appalling procedures.
2. Pay full and appropriate damages to the Australian Parents and Children injured by these AMA supported procedures.
3. Instigate a full review of these appalling procedures, based particularly on the evidence presented in the film ‘VAXXED’ and the documentation series ‘The Truth about Vaccines’, ‘Vaccines Revealed’, ‘Trace Amounts’, and ‘Vaccine Syndrome’.
4. Place the health and well‐being of our Australian children as paramount before commercial gain by Pharmaceutical and Medical industries and professionals

Deep sequencing reveals persistence of cell-associated mumps vaccine virus in chronic encephalitis
Abstract
Routine childhood vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella has virtually abolished virus-related morbidity and mortality. Notwithstanding this, we describe here devastating neurological complications associated with the detection of live-attenuated mumps virus Jeryl Lynn (MuVJL5) in the brain of a child who had undergone successful allogeneic transplantation for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). This is the first confirmed report of MuVJL5 associated with chronic encephalitis and highlights the need to exclude immunodeficient individuals from immunisation with live-attenuated vaccines. The diagnosis was only possible by deep sequencing of the brain biopsy. Sequence comparison of the vaccine batch to the MuVJL5 isolated from brain identified biased hypermutation, particularly in the matrix gene, similar to those found in measles from cases of SSPE. The findings provide unique insights into the pathogenesis of paramyxovirus brain infections

HEROIC #ANTIVACCINE WARRIORS SMACKDOWN EUGENICISTS!

BOMBSHELL: Flu vaccines don’t work in the elderly, new science shows … U.S. media

Tuesday, September 19, 2017
(Natural News) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the same authority that determines the national vaccination schedule, notes that those most at risk of complications from the flu virus are children younger than 5, but particularly those under the age of 2; pregnant women; people in nursing homes; and adults over the age of 65. The elderly are therefore among the most vulnerable members of society when it comes to influenza. It makes sense, therefore, to believe that the flu vaccination would need to be especially effective for that demographic.
A recent report by Public Health England (PHE), however, has revealed that though it seems to have been slightly more effective at preventing influenza among children than in previous years, last year’s flu shot was totally ineffective for the elderly.
Experts believe that the shot was ineffective because it did not protect against the most common circulating strain – the H3 strain. This is because the flu shot is essentially a game of chance each year; experts have to try to predict in advance which three strains of the virus will be in circulation in the coming winter. Even in a good year, their strike rate is only 50 percent.
Of course, instead of admitting the uselessness of the vaccine, health professionals are blaming the elderly themselves.

BREAKING: Robert F. Kennedy Jr. calls for extradition of CDC vaccine criminal mastermind Poul Thorsen to face charges of criminal scientific misconduct
Thursday, September 21, 2017
(Natural News) Robert F. Kennedy Jr. (RFK Jr.) and his team at World Mercury Project have drafted up a new report that reveals the criminal conduct of CDC consultant and vaccine cultist Poul Thorsen. With an overwhelming body of evidence, RFK Jr is calling for Attorney General Jeff Sessions to take action and extradite Poul Thorsen so he can face up to his numerous crimes. In a statement, RFK Jr declared, “World Mercury Project calls upon Attorney General Jeff Sessions to extradite Thorsen back to the U.S. to face prosecution. We also call upon Secretary of Health and Human Services Dr. Tom Price to retract the Thorsen-affiliated autism research papers that are the fruit of illegally conducted research.”
What has World Mercury Project (WMP) uncovered? In addition to evidence of criminal activity, new findings by WMP show that Thorsen and his team never obtained permission from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) to do their studies, published in 2002 by the New England Journal of Medicine and in 2003 by the journal Pediatrics. As WMP explains, this alone detracts from the validity of their research, but to make matters worse, records indicate that the CDC was complicit in covering up this little “mistake.” According to the WMP report, CDC staff realized that no IRB approval had ever been granted for Thorsen’s research, but the error was simply ignored and the studies were never retracted. Freedom of Information Act documents show that supervisors at the CDC looked the other way and actively tried to conceal what transpired.

Criminal Conduct – Poul Thorsen
Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. and World Mercury Project Issue Report Regarding New Evidence of Ongoing Corruption and Scientific Misconduct at CDC
Kennedy hopes new evidence and a fresh look at criminal misconduct will result in law enforcement action, rigorous and transparent vaccine safety science, and safer vaccines.
In a new report released September 18, 2017, Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. and his team outlined various criminal acts on the part of employees and consultants for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) whose questionable ethics and scientific fraud have resulted in untrustworthy vaccine safety science.

PDF – Poul Thorsen Fugitive Researcher
UPDATE AUGUST 2017
BETH CLAY FOR THE WORLD MERCURY PROJECT

HighWire with Del Bigtree – Jimmy Kimmel the Hypocrite. Vaccine Risk Now Mainstream!

One vaccine injection could carry many doses
Microparticles created by new 3-D fabrication method could release drugs or vaccines long after injection.
Anne Trafton | MIT News Office
September 14, 2017
MIT engineers have invented a new 3-D fabrication method that can generate a novel type of drug-carrying particle that could allow multiple doses of a drug or vaccine to be delivered over an extended time period with just one injection.
The new microparticles resemble tiny coffee cups that can be filled with a drug or vaccine and then sealed with a lid. The particles are made of a biocompatible, FDA-approved polymer that can be designed to degrade at specific times, spilling out the contents of the “cup.”
“We are very excited about this work because, for the first time, we can create a library of tiny, encased vaccine particles, each programmed to release at a precise, predictable time, so that people could potentially receive a single injection that, in effect, would have multiple boosters already built into it. This could have a significant impact on patients everywhere, especially in the developing world where patient compliance is particularly poor,” says Robert Langer, the David H. Koch Institute Professor at MIT.
Langer and Ana Jaklenec, a research scientist at MIT’s Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, are the senior authors of the paper, which appears online in Science on Sept. 14. The paper’s lead authors are postdoc Kevin McHugh and former postdoc Thanh D. Nguyen, now an assistant professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Connecticut.

 

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Vaccine News – The Alex Jones Channel – Nurse Ratchet Cranks Up Medical Tyranny

Apart from the racism of the white doctor saying “kill all the white people” because they’re “refusers”, Jon Rappoport breaks down the medical tyranny that would mandate some medical treatments, prohibit others and threaten to kill those who “refuse”. Follow David Knight On Twitter: https://twitter.com/libertytarian Follow Real News On Twitter: https://twitter.com/RealNewsX2 Like Real News On Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/RealNewsX2/ Watch At: infowars.com/show Help us spread the word about the liberty movement, we’re reaching millions help us reach millions more. Share the free live video feed link with your friends & family: http://www.infowars.com/show Follow Alex on TWITTER – https://twitter.com/RealAlexJones Like Alex on FACEBOOK – https://www.facebook.com/AlexanderEme… Infowars on G+ – https://plus.google.com/+infowars/ :Web: http://www.infowars.com/ http://www.prisonplanet.com/ http://www.infowars.net/

Vaccine News – Natural Herbal HPV “Cure” Discovered with study

Subcutaneous injections of aluminum at vaccine adjuvant levels activate innate immune genes in mouse brain that are homologous with biomarkers of autism

Highlights
• Mechanisms underlying aluminum adjuvant neurotoxicity have been investigated.
• Key proinflammatory factors were found elevated in the brains of aluminum-injected mice.
• Male mice were more susceptible to aluminum’s neuroinflammatory effects than females.
• Frontal cortex was the most affected area in males.
• Frontal cortex is involved in emotional and social functions which are impaired in autism.

Abstract
Autism is a neurobehavioral disorder characterized by immune dysfunction. It is manifested in early childhood, during a window of early developmental vulnerability where the normal developmental trajectory is most susceptible to xenobiotic insults. Aluminum (Al) vaccine adjuvants are xenobiotics with immunostimulating and neurotoxic properties to which infants worldwide are routinely exposed. To investigate Al′s immune and neurotoxic impact in vivo, we tested the expression of 17 genes which are implicated in both autism and innate immune response in brain samples of Al-injected mice in comparison to control mice. Several key players of innate immunity, such as cytokines CCL2, IFNG and TNFA, were significantly upregulated, while the nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κB) inhibitor NFKBIB, and the enzyme controlling the degradation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACHE), were downregulated in Al-injected male mice. Further, the decrease of the NF-κB inhibitor and the consequent increase in inflammatory signals, led to the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway resulting in the release of chemokine MIP-1A and cytokines IL-4 and IL-6. It thus appears that Al triggered innate immune system activation and altered cholinergic activity in male mice, observations which are consistent with those in autism. Female mice were less susceptible to Al exposure as only the expression levels of NF-κB inhibitor and TNFA were altered. Regional patterns of gene expression alterations also exhibited gender differences, as frontal cortex was the most affected area in males and cerebellum in females. Thus, Al adjuvant promotes brain inflammation and males appear to be more susceptible to Al′s toxic effects.

Nagalase Intentionally Put In to Vaccines For Depopulation
Scientists and holistic doctors have recently discovered Nagalase In many different vaccines, which spurs tumor growth by suppressing the bodies Immune system. It Is certain that these Nagalase molecules have been deliberately Inserted In to the vaccines to push up the numbers of people developing cancer, significantly Increasing the pharmaceutical Industry’s cancer drugs profits. Recently 30+ holistic doctors have been murdered for discovering nagalase In vaccines, healthy children have been found to have had high levels of this In their bodies, most likely administered through Injections. Nagalase Inhibits GcMAF.
One of the doctors that discovered the link between GcMAF and how It fights disease, was using this to treat his cancer patients, he died on On June 19, 2015, Dr. Jeff Bradstreet who apparently shot himself, was almost certainly murdered by the Cabal of criminals who are behind this conspiracy.
Human GcMAF holds great promise in the treatment of various illnesses including cancer, autism, chronic fatigue and possibly Parkinson’s. Since 1990, 59 research papers have been published on GcMAF, 20 of these pertaining to the treatment of cancer.
Dr Bradstreet was an alternative autism specialist and is widely regarded as a pioneer in the naturopathic field. He was using GcMAF and successfully treating dying cancer patients. To understand what put him on the deadly radar of the U.S. FDA and the pharmaceutical companies was that GcMAF has shown the ability to completely reverse autism and cancer without the use of chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery.

I am 100% anti-vaccine, with no exceptions. A moratorium on vaccines must take place, and until the CDC can directly answer under oath as to what has gone on. There needs to be Nuremberg Code violation trials as a result of that investigation. The corrupt now since 1987, federal vaccine court needs to be abolished, and pharma and the vaccine providers need again to become accountable and legally liable for the vaccine injury and death harm that is done. They refuse to see and to admit to what they have done. They are in lying and complete denial, and they continue to quake for their jobs and their false monopoly authority and their military style mafia level control.
Lowell Hubbs

Natural Herbal HPV “Cure” Discovered
Posted on: Monday, March 10th 2014 at 5:00 am
Written By: Sayer Ji, Founder

Despite the widespread belief that HPV infection is a lethal force against which we only have vaccination and watchful waiting to defend ourselves, both ancient herbal medicine and our body’s inherent immune defenses have newly been confirmed to have significant power against it.
A groundbreaking study published in the Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, titled, “Clearance of Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infection by Topical Application of Curcumin and Curcumin Containing Polyherbal Cream: A Phase II Randomized Controlled Study,” reveals that vaccination and watchful waiting are not the only recourse against HPV infection.
The study is believed to be the first of its kind to find an effective and safe therapeutic intervention for the clearance of established cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Moreover, the study confirmed that HPV infection is self-limiting and clears on its own in 73.3% of the untreated placebo group within 37 days.
The researchers evaluated the effectiveness of two herbal interventions in eliminating HPV infection from the cervix of women who were determined to have HPV infection through Pap smear and HPV DNA tests (PCR), but whose condition had not yet progressed to high grade cervical neoplasias (i.e. cervical pre-cancer).
The first intervention used was a polyherbal vaginal cream containing containing extracts of curcumin, reetha, amla and aloe vera, known by the trade name Basant. The second intervention was a curcumin vaginal capsule. The other two placebo groups received either a vaginal placebo cream or a placebo vaginal capsule.
All 287 subjects were instructed to use one application of the assigned formulation daily for 30 consecutive days except during menstruation. Seven days after the last application they were recalled for repeat HPV test, cytology and colposcopy.
The results were reported as follows:
“HPV clearance rate in Basant arm (87.7%) was significantly higher than the combined placebo arms (73.3%). Curcumin caused higher rate of clearance (81.3%) than placebo though the difference was not statistically significant.”
Vaginal irritation and itching, mostly mild to moderate, was significantly higher after Basant application. No serious adverse events were noted.

Clearance of Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infection by Topical Application of Curcumin and Curcumin Containing Polyherbal Cream: A Phase II Randomized Controlled Study
Article 31, Volume 14, Issue 10, October 2013, Page 5753-5759

Abstract
Curcumin and curcumin containing polyherbal preparations have demonstrated anti-microbial and antiviralproperties in pre-clinical studies. Till date no therapeutic intervention has been proved to be effective andsafe in clearing established cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The present study evaluated theefficacy of Basant polyherbal vaginal cream (containing extracts of curcumin, reetha, amla and aloe vera) andof curcumin vaginal capsules to eliminate HPV infection from cervix. Women were screened by Pap smear andHPV DNA test by PCR. HPV positive women without high grade cervical neoplasias (N=287) were randomizedto four intervention arms to be treated with vaginal Basant cream, vaginal placebo cream, curcumin vaginalcapsules and placebo vaginal capsules respectively. All subjects were instructed to use one application of theassigned formulation daily for 30 consecutive days except during menstruation and recalled within seven daysof the last application for repeat HPV test, cytology and colposcopy. HPV clearance rate in Basant arm (87.7%)was significantly higher than the combined placebo arms (73.3%). Curcumin caused higher rate of clearance(81.3%) than placebo though the difference was not statistically significant. Vaginal irritation and itching, mostlymild to moderate, was significantly higher after Basant application. No serious adverse events were noted.

Raila joins Catholic Church in opposing tetanus vaccine
Monday September 11 2017
The opposition on Monday re-ignited an unresolved controversial topic when its presidential candidate Raila Odinga claimed that the government administered tetanus vaccine secretly laced with a hormone said to cause infertility in women.
Mr Odinga claimed that the government deliberately sterilised thousands of women and girls in the guise of tetanus vaccination.
He further claimed that four credible institutions had conducted independent tests on the vaccine, which showed that it had compounds with high amount of anti-pregnancy hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) that would render the women and girls sterile.

CONFLICT
But then Health Cabinet Secretary James Macharia disputed the claims and told BBC that the vaccine was safe.
“I would recommend my own daughter and wife to take it because I entirely 100 percent agree with it and have confidence that it has no adverse health effects,” Mr Macharia said.
The tangle between the church and the government began on March 2014 when bishops became suspicious about the vaccine, which was targeted at women in the reproductive ages of 14 to 49, and excluded boys and men.

RESULTS
The controversy culminated in the formation of a joint committee of experts from the government and the Church, which was co-chaired by Prof Fredrick Were from the ministry and Dr Stephen Karanja representing the Church.
But months after the joint testing, the company hired to test the samples —Agriq Quest Ltd — in a damning letter claimed that the ministry through its then Principal Secretary Nicholas Muraguri wanted the results altered.

Mercury and Aluminum in Vaccines: a Primer on NVIC’s Vaccine Ingredients Calculator
Posted on January 30, 2012
by Marcella Piper-Terry, M.S.
This article will tell you how to recognize the symptoms of aluminum toxicity. Aluminum toxicity is something I am very concerned about. In 2004, a large portion of the mercury that was previously used in childhood vaccines was removed from those sold and administered in the United States.
Many people, including many physicians, believe and will tell you “There is no mercury in vaccines anymore. They took that out years ago!” This is not true. For a list of vaccines that still contain mercury above EPA safety levels click here: http://www.vaccinesafety.edu/components-Excipients.htm
Seven vaccines are reported to still contain thimerosal, which is 49.5% mercury.
The statement that there is no thimerosal in vaccines anymore is usually made by those attempting to make the claim that there is no link between autism and vaccines. These folks will frequently say things like, “They removed mercury from the shots and the autism rate has continued to go up! That proves vaccines don’t cause autism!”

All 8 extreme childhood food allergies are also common ingredients in CDC-recommended vaccines… coincidence?
Monday, September 18, 2017 by: S.D. Wells
(Natural News) Food allergy awareness posters in elementary schools list the following 8 food products as the most popular food allergies among children. Allergic reactions from exposure, consumption or injection of these foods can be fatal. Those 8 ingredients include peanuts, nuts, wheat, soy, milk, eggs, fish and shellfish. If your M.D. tells you that your food allergies are hereditary, maybe that’s because your parents were injected with the same food “excipients” when they got their dozens of vaccines growing up. Either you inherited your parent’s allergies, or millions of humans are simply allergic to injecting proteins, foreign animal blood cells, aborted baby blood cells, known carcinogens, and heavy metal toxins directly into their muscle tissue and blood, which would make perfect sense for any normal person with a perfectly functioning immune system.

 

Vaccine News – The Alex Jones Channel – Shock Video – Texas Vaccine Director Says Kill All White People

Mark Gonsalves joins Alex Jones live via Skype to expose how vaccines are known by the doctors administering them to cause adverse side effects in those who are exposed to their ‘medicine’. Help us spread the word about the liberty movement, we’re reaching millions help us reach millions more. Share the free live video feed link with your friends & family: http://www.infowars.com/show Follow Alex on TWITTER – https://twitter.com/RealAlexJones Like Alex on FACEBOOK – https://www.facebook.com/AlexanderEme… Infowars on G+ – https://plus.google.com/+infowars/

Vaccine News – UNEDITED FOOTAGE OF CDC ADMISSION ON CNN THAT VACCINES CAUSE AUTISM!

EXCLUSIVE UNCUT video interview with ‘VAXXED’ producer Del Bigtree that was 99% censored by ABC World News Tonight!
———————————————————————–
THE GOVERNMENT HAS BEEN MURDERING INNOCENT PEOPLE WITH VACCINES FOR DECADES AND THEY ARE BEING EXPOSED BEFORE OUR VERY EYES!
TO ALL OF THE FREEDOM FIGHTERS OUT THERE WHO TIRELESSLY EXPOSE THE TRUTH IN THE FACE OF INCREDIBLE CRITICISM AND PROPAGANDA, KEEP UP THE GOOD WORK!
THE GOVERNMENT IS RUNNING SCARED!
WE ARE MARCHING ON TO VICTORY!
——————————————————————————
“We set out to make a movie, now we’re making history…
To watch every major newspaper tell people not to see a movie, a movie they had never seen, is an unprecedented moment in this country. When has that ever happened?
Every major newspaper is saying don’t go see a movie they haven’t watched themselves. What’s next, are they going to tell us to start burning books in the streets? We’ve never seen anything like this.
This is supposed to be a country based on freedom of expression, and our entire media that [claims to] represent speech and expression, is telling everybody to shut down free speech. Journalism is officially DEAD in America.
We have a whistleblower at the CDC who is still sitting at the CDC, an awarded scientist, who is being protected by whistleblower status, and the media is saying we are making things up. They say they’ve debunked the whistleblower, but you can’t debunk someone who hasn’t had his day in court, just like you can’t review a movie you haven’t seen.”
Learn more: http://www.naturalnews.com/053448_Del_Bigtree_VAXXED_docume…
——————–
We are facing massive censorship and we are under attack from every angle but WE WILL BE VICTORIOUS!
PLEASE LIKE, SHARE (ESPECIALLY TO GROUPS), AND COMMENT ON THIS POST!
WE WILL DEFEAT EVIL BY HAVING THE COURAGE TO EXPOSE IT!
Thank you for all of your support!

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ERIC’S LIFE BEFORE AND AFTER VACCINES!

DR. SHIV CHOPRA EXPOSES THE GOVERNMENT’S EUGENICS DEATH CULT!

UNEDITED FOOTAGE OF CDC ADMISSION ON CNN THAT VACCINES CAUSE AUTISM!

BABY GIRL VACCINATED BY FORCE IS NOW AUTISTIC!

Dr. Suzanne Humphries EXPOSES GOVERNMENT VACCINE EUGENICS PROGRAM!

DR. Sherri Tenpenny EXPOSES GOVERNMENT VACCINE MURDER PROGRAM!

VACCINES CAUSE ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE!

CANADIAN GIRL MURDERED BY VACCINES!
MORE THAN 50 MORE GIRLS SEVERELY, PERMANENTLY INJURED BY VACCINES!

Scottish Mother and Science Officer Warns School Teachers of HPV Vaccine Risks
Mrs. Caran Dynan, Mother of a Vaccine Injured Daughter, Kilsyth, Scotland, Science Officer and political activist for AHVID has sent this letter to many Schools in Scotland and England to raise awareness that school girls are becoming very ill following HPV vaccination and are missing out on so much of their education.
Human Papillomavirus Vaccination
With regards to the Human Papillomavirus Vaccination administered in your school, I would like to raise your awareness to the real possible side effects of this vaccine, as well as the lack of studies and safety tests carried out on this Vaccine.
To make it clear, I am writing this letter from the stance of a mother whose perfectly healthy (apart from slight hay fever) daughter’s life was completely altered after receiving Gardasil.
Very soon after receiving her first vaccination, her health started to decline, both mentally and physically, for what appeared to be no reason.
To cut a very lengthy story short, she has suffered over the past five years with the following conditions:

Fainting Spells/Dizziness
Irregular Heartbeat and Increased Heart Rate
Shortness of Breath
Complete Loss of Appetite
Light Sensitivity
Extreme Fatigue/Irregular Sleeping Patterns
Depression
Inability to Stand/Walk for any period of time
Severe Social Anxiety
Numbness of Lower Legs/Feet
Constant Headaches
Brain fog/cognitive impairment
Inability to regulate body temperature General Feelings of Malaise

Please note that she never experienced any of these symptoms until October 2012, which is when she received the first vaccine.

Vaccine News – Study – Gender-selective toxicity of thimerosal

PubMed.gov – Mar.2009
Abstract
A recent report shows a correlation of the historical use of thimerosal in therapeutic immunizations with the subsequent development of autism; however, this association remains controversial. Autism occurs approximately four times more frequently in males compared to females; thus, studies of thimerosal toxicity should take into consideration gender-selective effects. The present study was originally undertaken to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of thimersosal in male and female CD1 mice. However, during the limited MTD studies, it became apparent that thimerosal has a differential MTD that depends on whether the mouse is male or female. At doses of 38.4-76.8mg/kg using 10% DMSO as diluent, seven of seven male mice compared to zero of seven female mice tested succumbed to thimerosal. Although the thimerosal levels used were very high, as we were originally only trying to determine MTD, it was completely unexpected to observe a difference of the MTD between male and female mice. Thus, our studies, although not directly addressing the controversy surrounding thimerosal and autism, and still preliminary due to small numbers of mice examined, provide, nevertheless, the first report of gender-selective toxicity of thimerosal and indicate that any future studies of thimerosal toxicity should take into consideration gender-specific differences.
PubMed.gov – 15.Mar.2010
Abstract
Mercury (Hg) exposure from dental amalgam fillings and thimerosal in vaccines is not a major health hazard, but adverse health effects cannot be ruled out in a small and more susceptible part of the exposed population. Individual differences in toxicokinetics may explain susceptibility to mercury. Inbred, H-2-congenic A.SW and B10.S mice and their F1- and F2-hybrids were given HgCl2 with 2.0 mg Hg/L drinking water and traces of (203)Hg. Whole-body retention (WBR) was monitored until steady state after 5 weeks, when the organ Hg content was assessed. Despite similar Hg intake, A.SW males attained a 20-30% significantly higher WBR and 2- to 5-fold higher total renal Hg retention/concentration than A.SW females and B10.S mice. A selective renal Hg accumulation but of lower magnitude was seen also in B10.S males compared with females. Differences in WBR and organ Hg accumulation are therefore regulated by non-H-2 genes and gender. Lymph nodes lacked the strain- and gender-dependent Hg accumulation profile of kidney, liver and spleen. After 15 days without Hg A.SW mice showed a 4-fold higher WBR and liver Hg concentration, but 11-fold higher renal Hg concentration, showing the key role for the kidneys in explaining the slower Hg elimination in A.SW mice. The trait causing higher mercury accumulation was not dominantly inherited in the F1 hybrids. F2 mice showed a large inter-individual variation in Hg accumulation, showing that multiple genetic factors influence the Hg toxicokinetics in the mouse. The genetically heterogeneous human population may therefore show a large variation in mercury toxicokinetics.
US National Library of Medicine – National Institutes of Health – Feb.2015
Results
Developmental Domain: ASD Diagnostic Criteria
Social Communication/Social Interaction
Deficits in social communication and social interaction are core factors in the diagnostic criteria of ASD. Impairments in social communication may present as abnormalities in eye contact, poor integration of verbal and nonverbal behaviors, and difficulties understanding the nonverbal communication of others (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). In some cases, persons with ASD may not participate in conversation or struggle with pragmatic language (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Impairments in social interaction include difficulties with social-emotional reciprocity, failure to develop peer relationships, and reduced empathetic understanding and/or response (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
There were 21 articles reviewed on social communication and social interaction in persons with ASD published between 1993 and 2013: 13 case-control studies, 7 cross-sectional studies, and 1 surveillance study. Nine studies were conducted in the United States and 12 studies were conducted at outside of the US. Of these 21 articles, 14 address social communication or other language abilities. In samples of children with varying cognitive abilities, some studies showed no significant differences in communication, conversational deficits, and language levels between males and females with ASD (Andersson et al., 2013; Dawson et al., 2007; Nicholas et al., 2008; Pilowsky et al., 1998; Park et al., 2012a, 2012b; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Mandy et al., 2012; Sipes et al., 2011; Solomon et al., 2012; Amr et al., 2011). One study found that males with ASD had greater expressive and receptive language skills than females with ASD (Carter et al., 2007) and another study found that females with ASD had more impaired social communication skills than males with ASD (Hartley and Sikora, 2009). Conversely, Park et al. (2012b) found that females with ASD had stronger non-verbal communication abilities than males with ASD. The majority of the literature reviewed on social communication found no difference between males and females with ASD, but there is some inconsistency.
The literature on sex differences in social interaction among persons with ASD (13 of 21 articles reviewed) is also inconsistent but generally suggests no significant sex differences in social interaction skills (Andersson et al., 2013; Dawson et al., 2007; Nicholas et al., 2008; Pilowsky et al., 1998; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Park et al. 2012b; Mandy et al., 2012; Sipes et al., 2011; Solomon et al., 2012). In population-level surveillance of eight-year olds, 80 % of children with ASD had poor social-emotional reciprocity with no significant difference between males and females (Nicholas et al., 2008). Szatmari et al. (2012) also found no sex differences in social-emotional reciprocity for children with varying cognitive abilities in a study from the Autism Genome Project. Oppositely, in an age and IQ matched case–control study, female adults with ASD were found to have fewer socio-communication difficulties during interpersonal interaction than male adults with ASD (Lai et al., 2013). Lastly, no sex differences have been noted in emotional reactiveness or being withdrawn (Hartley and Sikora, 2009) and in empathetic understanding and responses (Auyeung et al., 2009).
Cognitive functioning is likely to play a role in these social processes. Lower intellectual abilities are often linked with greater social impairment regardless of sex (Dawson et al., 2007). Among children with high functioning autism (IQ≥70), social skills have been found to be more impaired in female children than male children (Holtmann et al., 2007) and more severe as children aged (McLennan et al., 1993). In contrast, other studies found adult females with high functioning autism to have less socio-communication issues compared to males (Lai et al., 2011) or there were no sex differences in socio-communication skills in older children and adolescents (Holtmann et al., 2007; Kopp and Gillberg, 2011).
Overall, the 21 articles reviewed suggest no difference in social interaction between males and females with ASD and inconsistent differences in social communication between males and females with ASD, although both social interaction and social communication may be influenced by intellectual ability and age.
Restricted, Repetitive Patterns of Behavior, Interests, or Activities
There were 18 articles reviewed on restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests (RRBI) published between 1993 and 2013: nine cross-sectional studies, seven case–control studies, one cohort study, and one surveillance study. Eleven studies were conducted in the United States and seven studies were conducted in other countries. Based on this review, the literature suggests that males with ASD have more RRBI than females with ASD (Hattier et al., 2011; Carter et al., 2007). When assessing individual facets of RRBI, restricted interests are seen more often in males with ASD than females with ASD independent of cognitive ability (Kohane et al., 2012; May et al., 2012; Mandy et al., 2012; Szatmari et al., 2012). Males with ASD are also more likely to have more routines, rituals, and fascination with parts of objects than females with ASD (Nicholas et al., 2008; Park, et al., 2012b; Beuker et al., 2013). The literature on repetitive motor movements is less consistent: adult males with high functioning autism or Asperger’s syndrome had more repetitive motor movements than adult females with high functioning autism or Asperger’s syndrome in one case-control study (May et al., 2012), but there were no sex differences in repetitive motor movements among persons with autism in two other case-control studies (McLennan et al., 1993; Worley and Matson, 2011), one cross-sectional study (Auyeung et al., 2009), and one population-based cross-sectional study (Nicholas et al., 2008).
Age may influence the presentation of RRBI in males and females with ASD. One study found no sex difference among RRBI in toddlers (Sipes et al., 2011), whereas a different study found significantly more RRBI among adult males with ASD compared to females with ASD (Hattier et al., 2011). In summation, most studies reviewed suggested that males with ASD are likely to have more RRBI than females with ASD across levels of cognitive ability, although RRBI may be influenced by age.
Sensory issues are prevalent among persons with ASD (Nicholas et al., 2008) and are included as a RRBI in the DSM 5 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Common issues are oversensitivity to touch, sound, smell, taste, and attraction to certain tactile stimuli (American Psychiatric Association, 2013; Baranek et al., 2006; Rogers et al., 2003). Abnormal sensory reactions have been reported to occur in up to 47 % of persons with ASD, which is a rate ten times higher than reported in the general population (Nicholas et al., 2008). Additionally, there is a significant correlation between sensory issues in each of the individual senses (Kern et al., 2007); therefore, impairment is compounded for persons with ASD and sensory abnormalities.
Cross-sectional studies found no observed differences between males and females in sensitivity to sound (Mandy et al., 2012) or sensory sensitivity in general (Louisa et al., 2012; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Baranek et al., 2006). Mandy et al. (2012) examined RRBI in children and adolescents 3 to 18 years of age and found that age did not influence the presentation of RRBI. However, Lai et al. (2011) found that adult females with high functioning autism had more lifetime sensory issues than males with ASD. Overall, the majority of articles reviewed that addressed sensory issues in ASD do not suggest a sex difference, although aging may be a factor and should be further explored.
Developmental Domain: other Developmental Endophenotypes
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and corresponding symptoms are common in children with ASD (Bradley and Isaacs, 2006; Nicholas et al., 2008). Previous studies show that 50 % to 83 % of children and teenagers with ASD had hyperactivity and attention problems (Nicholas et al., 2008; Bradley and Isaacs, 2006). There were seven articles that met search criteria and addressed ADHD. These seven articles were published between 2008 and 2012 with five cross-sectional studies and two cohort studies. Two studies were conducted in the United States and five were conducted in other countries.
A study of 7 to 12 year-olds with varying cognitive abilities found that males with ASD had higher levels of hyperactivity and impulsivity than females with ASD and this difference was more pronounced at younger ages (May et al., 2012). Males with high functioning autism from middle childhood to adolescence had higher levels of hyper-activity and inattention in teacher reports as compared to female peers, but there was no difference in parental reports (Mandy et al., 2012). A study of children and young adults aged 5 to 20 with high functioning autism found females had more attention problems (Bryson et al., 2008). A majority of studies found no difference in ADHD co-occurrence between males and females with ASD (Simonoff et al., 2008; Sinzig et al., 2009; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Horovitz et al., 2011). In summary, the current literature leans toward no sex differences in the co-occurrence of ADHD and ASD, but there is still inconsistency in the literature and thus, the sex difference is largely inconclusive
Challenging Behavior (Aggressiveness/Temper Tantrums/Oppositional Tendencies)
Challenging behavior is a common associated feature of ASD and includes aggression expressed toward other people, temper tantrums, and oppositional and defiant tendencies. Aggression expressed toward other people and temper tantrums are found in 50 % and 54 % of children with ASD compared to only 28 % and 23 % of children without ASD (Nicholas et al., 2008). The 12 articles in this review that met search criteria and addressed challenging behaviors were published between 2005 and 2012 and included six cross-sectional studies, four case–control studies, one clinical trial, and one surveillance study. Six studies were conducted in the United States and six were conducted in other countries. In general, there were no differences in aggression, temper tantrums, or anger between child sexes, regardless of age or cognitive ability (Kozlowski et al., 2012; Worley and Matson, 2011; Carter et al., 2007; Murphy et al., 2009; Mandy et al., 2012; Quek et al., 2012; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Horovitz et al., 2011). One study found that females with ASD had more “challenging behaviors” than males with ASD, although challenging behaviors were not explicitly defined (Dworzynski et al., 2012). Delinquent behavior (Park et al., 2012b) and oppositional defiance (Gadow et al., 2005) were more prevalent in males than in females with ASD in two studies reviewed.
Cognitive Skills and Intellectual Disability
In a review from 1966 to 2001, Fombonne (2003) found that the median prevalence of intellectual impairment in persons with ASD was 70 % in the studies evaluated. More recent population-based studies have found lower rates of ID in persons with ASD, with a range from 18 % to 55 % (Charman et al., 2011). The National Health Interview Study found 0.71 % of all children aged 3 to 17 from 1998 to 2007 had an ID (Boyle et al., 2011). Our review found 12 articles that met the search criteria and addressed ID or specific cognitive skills. These 12 articles were published between 1983 and 2011, and included seven cross-sectional studies, four case–control studies, and one-surveillance study. Four studies were conducted in the United States and eight were conducted in other countries.
The 12 articles reviewed support a relationship between child sex and co-occurring ID in children with ASD. The sex ratio between males and females without ID is greater than the sex ratio for all levels of cognitive ability combined (Nicholas et al., 2008; Hartley and Sikora, 2009). Consequently, the male to female ratio is lower when there is co-occurring ID compared to when there is no co-occurring ID (Hartley and Sikora, 2009; Nicholas et al., 2008; Yeargin-Allsopp et al., 2003). The ratio of males to females with ASD and co-occurring ID has been seen to range from 1.3:1 (Tsai and Beisler, 1983) to 2.8:1 (Bryson et al., 2008) with a trend toward fewer sex differences as ID becomes more severe (Yeargin-Allsopp et al., 2003). This differential sex difference in ID results in females with ASD, on average, having lower intelligence test scores than males with ASD (Banach et al., 2009; Volkmar et al., 1993).
Specific cognitive skills posited to vary between males and females with ASD include cognitive flexibility, response inhibition, working memory, and attention to detail (Geurts et al., 2004). Female adolescents with high functioning autism were seen to have superior information processing, multiple conceptual tracking, divided attention, and cognitive flexibility compared to male adolescents with high functioning autism (Bolte et al., 2011). In contrast, studies show males with ASD have superior attention to detail, visuo-spatial skills (Auyeung et al., 2009), and inhibitory control (Lemon et al., 2011) compared to females with ASD. There were no sex differences between adults with ASD in the “eyes test” which measures ability to infer mental states through the eyes (Lai et al., 2011). In summary, the 12 journal articles reviewed in this section suggest that females with ASD generally have lower intelligence test scores than males with ASD and that specific cognitive skills may vary by sex.
Developmental Regression
Parents of some children with ASD report a period of typical development followed by a loss in language, social, motor, self-help, imaginative play, or other skills. This developmental regression is usually reported to occur between 15 and 24 months of age (Meilleur and Fombonne, 2009). Our review found six articles that met search criteria and addressed developmental regression. These six articles were published between 2007 and 2013 and comprised two cohort studies, three cross-sectional studies, and one surveillance study. In a population-based surveillance study of children with ASD, 17 % of children had documented developmental regression and that percentage rose if the child had a previous ASD diagnosis (Wiggins et al., 2009). Males had significantly more regression than females and were more likely to regress at a younger age (Wiggins et al., 2009). This higher risk of regression in males was also seen in smaller, non-population based studies (n=4, 8, and 17 female children) (Bernabei et al., 2007; Ekinci et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2012). In contrast, a cross-sectional study found that females aged 18 months to 15 years had significantly higher occurrence of regression as compared to males (30 % vs. 19 %) (Ben-Itzchak et al., 2013). No difference in the presence of developmental regression between males and females with ASD was observed in a small clinical sample of 20 females (Meilleur and Fombonne, 2009). In sum, the review of sex differences of developmental regression is contradictory and thus inconclusive.
Excess/Absence of Fear
Excess or absence of fear is more common in children with ASD than other children (Evans et al. 2005; Nicholas et al., 2008). In a population-based surveillance of eight-year olds, Nicholas et al. (2008) found that 32 % of children with ASD had atypical fear noted in service records compared to 6 % of children with ASD symptoms but no ASD diagnosis. Three articles met search criteria and addressed excess or absence of fear. All three of these articles were published in the United States between 1990 and 2011 and were two cross-sectional studies and one case–control study. In these studies, females with ASD had more specific phobias than males with ASD (Gadow and DeVincent, 2012; Matson and Love, 1990) and more unusual fears (Mayes et al., 2013). One study conducted by Matson and Love (1990) found more fear in typically developing female children compared to male children and no significant difference in fear between typically developing female children and female children with ASD. Given the sparse amount of research on this topic, further exploration is warranted to understand sex differences in fear among persons with ASD.
Safety Issues (Self-Injury/Elopement)
About 50 % of children with ASD engage in self-injurious behavior (Richards et al., 2012; Baghdadli et al., 2003; Duerden et al., 2012). Four studies met search criteria and three pertained to self-injurious behavior. All three of these studies were cross-sectional designs with two being conducted in Europe and one in the United States. No difference in self-injurious behavior was found between males and females with ASD (Richards et al., 2012; Baghdadli et al., 2003; Duerden et al., 2012).
Elopement, also known as wandering off, is a rising concern among parents of children with ASD. One online survey addressing elopement met our search criteria. This survey was conducted in the United States in 2013 and found that 49 % of parents reported that their child with an ASD wandered off at least once after the age of four years (Anderson et al., 2012). Results also found that sex did not influence the prevalence of elopement, although children with more intellectual impairment were more likely to elope (Anderson et al., 2012). Few conclusions can be drawn since there is little research on elopement and other safety issues in children with ASD and associated sex differences.
Psychiatric Domain
Anxiety/Mood Disorders
Symptoms of anxiety and mood disorders are more prevalent in children with ASD than in typically developing children (Worley and Matson, 2011; Nicholas et al., 2008). Among children who met a surveillance definition for an ASD, 55 % had abnormal mood or affect compared to 26 % of children with at least one symptom of an ASD but no ASD diagnosis (Schendel et al., 2009). The Special Needs Autism Project in the UK found 44 cases of emotional disorder per 100 children with ASD (Simonoff et al., 2008). Moreover, among eight-year-old children who met a surveillance definition for an ASD, 3 % had anxiety, 2 % had emotional disorder, 2 % had mood disorder, and less than 2 % had obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), depression, bipolar, or oppositional defiant disorder (Levy et al., 2010). Nine studies were found that met search criteria and addressed anxiety or mood disorders. These nine studies were published between 2005 and 2012 and included five cross-sectional studies and four case–control studies. Four of the studies were conducted in the United States and five were conducted in other countries.
The literature on sex differences in co-occurring anxiety or mood disorders and ASD is mixed and dependent on cognitive abilities. In some studies, females with high functioning autism were at greater risk for internalizing psychopathology than both male children with ASD and typically developing female children (Solomon et al., 2012; Mandy et al., 2012). These studies are supported by a Finnish report that found female children with ASD had lower scores on a test associated with major depressive disorder compared to male children with ASD (Mattila et al., 2010). Other studies found no sex differences in the of co-occurrence of anxiety or depression in children with ASD and varying cognitive abilities (Quek et al., 2012; Gadow et al., 2005; Park et al., 2012b; Simonoff et al., 2008; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Lai et al., 2011). In the general population, females have more panic attacks, generalized anxiety disorders and males have more social anxiety (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Based on this review, the current literature is inconclusive on whether a sex difference in children with ASD and co-occurring anxiety or mood disorders exists, although a few studies suggest more anxiety and mood disorders in females than males with ASD.
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that involves delusions, disorganized behavior, disorganized speech, hallucinations, and restrictions in the range and intensity of emotions (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Schizophrenia typically presents between 18 and 30 years of age with earlier onset associated with male sex. Lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia is near 0.2 % (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) The prevalence of schizophrenia in eight-year olds with ASD is less than 1 % (Levy et al., 2010). Two articles met search criteria and addressed schizophrenia. These two articles were published in 2005 and 2010 and were both case–control studies. Review of the two studies found conflicting results on sex differences and the co-occurrence of ASD and schizophrenia or schizophrenia spectrum traits. A parental survey of 6 to 12 year olds with ASD found schizophrenia spectrum traits to be twice as prevalent in females compared to males (57 %: 28 %) independent of ID (Gadow and DeVincent, 2012). Conversely, in a group of 6 to 12 year olds with ASD and ID, schizophrenia was more common in males than females (Tsakanikos et al., 2011). Again, the literature is relatively sparse due to the late onset of schizophrenia and the rarity of co-occurring schizophrenia: future research is warranted.
Medical Domain
Birth defects/Chromosomal Disorders /Genetic Disorders
Population-based surveillance data from the 2008 ADDM report found that among children with ASD, less than 1 % had a co-occurrence of fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, chromosomal disorders, or other genetic and congenital diagnoses (Levy et al., 2010). It is likely that these rates are under-reported because investigation of ASD co-occurring conditions was not the focus of the ADDM surveillance effort. However, a cohort study of children in Georgia found a similar prevalence of chromosomal disorders and Down syndrome in persons with ASD (Schendel et al., 2009).
There were four studies reviewed that met search criteria and addressed ASD sex differences in birth defects, chromosomal disorders, and genetic disorders: two systematic reviews, one case–control study, and one surveillance study. Co-occurring birth defects, such as impairments to the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, genitourinary system, or musculoskeletal system, appear more often in males than females with ASD. Among children with ASD, the male to female ratio was 9:1 if a child had a co-occurring birth defect and 3.6:1 if the child did not have a co-occurring birth defect (Schendel et al., 2009).
A review conducted by Reilly (2009) found that males with ASD have more co-occurring Down syndrome than females with ASD and the male to female ratio among children with both ASD and Down syndrome may be near the overall ASD prevalence ratio of 4:1. A review conducted by Wiznitzer (2004) found no difference between males and females with ASD and the co-occurrence of tuberous sclerosis. Clifford et al. (2007) found that about 70 % of males aged 5 to 80 with fragile X syndrome had co-occurring ASD while 23 % of females in the same age range with fragile X had co-occurring ASD. The difference in co-occurrence of ASD between males and females may suggest a greater association between the two conditions in males as compared to females.
It is important to note that birth defects, chromosomal disorders, and genetic disorders are rare and seldom studied. Therefore, the results on sex differences for co-occurring ASD and chromosomal and genetic conditions are inconclusive.
Head Size / Encephalopathy
Head size, specifically an enlarged head circumference or macrocephaly, has been associated with ASD (Wallace and Treffert, 2004). Three articles were reviewed that examined differences in head size between males and females with ASD. Studies include two case–control studies and one cross-sectional study. Two studies were conducted in the US and one study was conducted in Italy. A cross-sectional study by Fombonne et al. (1999) found no difference in head size between males and females aged 2 to 16 with ASD. Sacco et al. (2007) also found no difference in head size between males and females aged 3 to 16 with ASD. In contrast, Aylward et al. (2002) found larger head sizes in male adults and children compared to female adults and children with ASD, but the female sample size was low (n=9).
Abnormal Eating and Gastrointestinal Issues
In a population-based study conducted by Nicholas et al. (2008), about 54 % of children with ASD had an abnormality in eating, drinking, or sleeping, which is nearly 40 % higher than that of children with at least one symptom of ASD but no diagnosis (Nicholas et al., 2008). Some studies have shown an increase in certain gastrointestinal symptoms among persons with ASD, including constipation (Ibrahim et al., 2009) and diarrhea (Wang et al., 2006), while other studies found no significant increase in overall gastrointestinal symptoms or symptoms such as esophageal reflux, vomiting, and abdominal discomfort (Ibrahim et al., 2009; Wang et al., 2006; Valicenti-McDermott et al., 2007). However, little research on gastrointestinal issues has been conducted at a population level and no studies were found that compared males to females on gastrointestinal response. More research is needed to determine if there is an association between gastrointestinal symptoms and ASD and whether the association differs between the sexes.
Four studies were found that compared the sexes and addressed food selectivity. These four studies were conducted in the United States between 2006 and 2010 and included one case–control and three cross-sectional designs. In general, review of these studies found food selectivity and feeding issues to be more frequent in children with ASD than children without ASD (Valicenti-McDermott et al., 2007; Ibrahim et al., 2009), although limited research is available in this area. There was no difference between child sexes in over or under-eating in a study of children with high functioning autism (Worley and Matson, 2011) and no differences between the sexes in eating abnormalities in two studies conducted in children with ASD and varying cognitive abilities (Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Horovitz et al., 2011). Based on this limited review, it appears unlikely that there is a difference in eating habits between males and females with ASD.
Seizures/ Epilepsy
Epilepsy and other seizure disorders co-occur in 5 % to 40 % of children with ASD and there is differential prevalence based on ID (Baird et al., 2008; Nicholas et al., 2008). This review found three articles that met search criteria and addressed seizures or epilepsy. These three articles were published between 2008 and 2013 and consist of a cohort study, one cross-sectional study, and one meta-analysis. Females with ASD were found to have more epilepsy than males with ASD; the male to female ratio drops to near 2:1 in children with ASD and co-occurring epilepsy, but this may be partly due to differential ID (Amiet et al., 2008; Bolton et al., 2011; Ben-Itzchak et al., 2013). There may be an increased likeliness in females with ASD to have co-occurring epilepsy or seizure disorder; however, the literature is sparse so a conclusion cannot be drawn. Further research is needed to enhance current knowledge of sex differences in children with ASD and epilepsy or seizure disorder.
Sleep Disturbances
In a systematic review of parental sleep surveys, sleep problems were present in 50 % to 80 % of children with ASD compared to 9 % to 50 % in matched typically developing children (Kotagal and Broomall, 2012). There were six articles reviewed that met search criteria and addressed sleep disturbances. These six articles were published between 2004 and 2012 and included two case–control studies, two cohort studies, and two cross-sectional studies. Four were conducted in the United States and three were conducted in other countries. Based on this review, some studies found no sex differences in sleep problems among persons with ASD (Liu et al., 2006; Wiggs and Stores, 2004; Mayes and Calhoun, 2011; Horovitz et al., 2011), one study found that female children with ASD have less sleep problems than male children with ASD (Sivertsen et al., 2012), and one study found female children with ASD have more sleep problems than male children with ASD (Hartley and Sikora, 2009). The minimal amount of research in this area leads to inconsistent results and prevents definitive conclusions on whether a sex difference exists in sleep disturbance.

Vaccine News – Associations of prenatal and early childhood mercury exposure with autistic behaviors at 5 years of age: The Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health (MOCEH) study

Science of The Total Environment – 2017
Highlights
•We explored the associations between blood mercury levels and autistic behaviors.
•This study involved an ongoing multi-center prospective birth cohort.
•Blood mercury levels were repeatedly measured from early pregnancy to 3 years.
•Autistic behaviors were assessed at 5 years with the Social Responsiveness Scale.
•Prenatal and early childhood mercury levels were associated with autistic behaviors.
Abstract
Background
Although mercury is an established neurotoxin, only few longitudinal studies have investigated the association between prenatal and early childhood mercury exposure and autistic behaviors.
Methods
We conducted a longitudinal cohort study using an ongoing prospective birth cohort initiated in 2006, wherein blood mercury levels were measured at early and late pregnancy; in cord blood; and at 2 and 3 years of age. We analyzed 458 mother-child pairs. Autistic behaviors were assessed using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) at 5 years of age. Both continuous SRS T-scores and T-scores dichotomized by a score of ≥ 60 or < 60 were used as outcomes.
Results
The geometric mean of mercury concentrations in cord blood was 5.52 μg/L. In adjusted models, a doubling of blood mercury levels at late pregnancy (β = 1.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39, 3.29), in cord blood (β = 2.24, 95% CI: 0.22, 4.27), and at 2 years (β = 2.12, 95% CI: 0.54, 3.70) and 3 years (β = 2.80, 95% CI: 0.89, 4.72) of age was positively associated with the SRS T-scores. When the SRS T-scores were dichotomized, we observed positive associations with mercury levels at late pregnancy (relative risk [RR] = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.60) and in cord blood (RR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.63).
Conclusion
We found that blood mercury levels at late pregnancy and early childhood were associated with more autistic behaviors in children at 5 years of age. Further study on the long-term effects of mercury exposure is recommended.
Molecular Neurobiology – 22 July 2017
Abstract
Exposure to organic forms of mercury has the theoretical capacity to generate a range of immune abnormalities coupled with chronic nitro-oxidative stress seen in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The paper discusses possible mechanisms explaining the neurotoxic effects of mercury and possible associations between mercury exposure and ASD subtypes. Environmental mercury is neurotoxic at doses well below the current reference levels considered to be safe, with evidence of neurotoxicity in children exposed to environmental sources including fish consumption and ethylmercury-containing vaccines. Possible neurotoxic mechanisms of mercury include direct effects on sulfhydryl groups, pericytes and cerebral endothelial cells, accumulation within astrocytes, microglial activation, induction of chronic oxidative stress, activation of immune-inflammatory pathways and impairment of mitochondrial functioning. (Epi-)genetic factors which may increase susceptibility to the toxic effects of mercury in ASD include the following: a greater propensity of males to the long-term neurotoxic effects of postnatal exposure and genetic polymorphisms in glutathione transferases and other glutathione-related genes and in selenoproteins. Furthermore, immune and inflammatory responses to immunisations with mercury-containing adjuvants are strongly influenced by polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region and by genes encoding effector proteins such as cytokines and pattern recognition receptors. Some epidemiological studies investigating a possible relationship between high environmental exposure to methylmercury and impaired neurodevelopment have reported a positive dose-dependent effect. Retrospective studies, on the other hand, reported no relationship between a range of ethylmercury-containing vaccines and chronic neuropathology or ASD. On the basis of these results, we would argue that more clinically relevant research is required to examine whether environmental mercury is associated with ASD or subtypes. Specific recommendations for future research are discussed.
PubMed.gov – 8 May 2017
Abstract
Environmental factors have been implicated in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, the role of heavy metals has not been fully defined. This study investigated whether blood levels of mercury, arsenic, cadmium, and lead of children with ASD significantly differ from those of age- and sex-matched controls. One hundred eighty unrelated children with ASD and 184 healthy controls were recruited. Data showed that the children with ASD had significantly (p < 0.001) higher levels of mercury and arsenic and a lower level of cadmium. The levels of lead did not differ significantly between the groups. The results of this study are consistent with numerous previous studies, supporting an important role for heavy metal exposure, particularly mercury, in the etiology of ASD. It is desirable to continue future research into the relationship between ASD and heavy metal exposure